Ancient Western Eurasian DNA of the Copper and Bronze Ages

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Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups extracted from historic and prehistoric human remains in Europe and related remains in Asia, arranged chronologically. Dates for particular cultures vary from region to region, so there is chronological overlap in the periods. For haplogroup nomenclature and aDNA issues see Introduction to ancient DNA

Culture

Country

Site and/or Individual

Sex

Date

Y-DNA

mtDNA

Source



pigmentation from genes
pigmentation surviving

usually approximate Haplogroup Additional information Haplogroup Additional information

Copper Age / Chalcolithic

Bell Beaker is classed here as Copper Age, though described as Neolithic in Melchior and Late Neolithic in Lee.

Ubaid Turkey Tell Kurdu, Amuq E [23:11 and 24:3] F + ? 5000-4500 BC

H3a 2 samples of 16104T, 16187T, 16216G, 16239G, 16319C Özbal 2010

Israel Wadi el‐Makkukh [WM 27] M 4490-4335 BC

U3a 16343G, 16390A Salamon 2010

Israel Wadi el‐Makkukh [WM 28] M 4460-4365 BC

H? 263G, 309.1C Salamon 2010

Israel Wadi el‐Makkukh [WM 30] M 4240-4065 BC

H6 16311C, 16362C, 16482G Salamon 2010

Israel Wadi el‐Makkukh [CW] M 3765‐3650 BC

H? 263G, 309.1C, 309.2C, 309.3C, 315.1C Salamon 2010
Early Eneolithic Bulgaria Smyadovo [SMY3] 6,500–5,000 y. a. H rCRS in HV1 Wilde 2014
Early Eneolithic Bulgaria Smyadovo [SMY4] 6,500–5,000 y. a. H 456Y, 16304C Wilde 2014
Early Eneolithic Bulgaria Smyadovo [SMY9] 6,500–5,000 y. a. H 16261T Wilde 2014
Early Eneolithic Bulgaria Smyadovo [SMY11] 6,500–5,000 y. a. T2e 4216C, 4917G, 7028T, 11719A, 14766T, 16126C, 16153A, 16269G, 16294T, 16296T, reported as T Wilde 2014
Early Eneolithic Moldova Vinogradnoe [VIN1] 6,500–5,000 y. a. H rCRS in HV1 Wilde 2014
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut 2] 4000-3000 BC U2e 16129C, 16189C Molodin 2012
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut 12, Ut 16] 4000-3000 BC U2e 2 samples of 16129C, 16189C, 16246G Molodin 2012
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut 3] 4000-3000 BC D 16223T, 16362C Molodin 2012
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut 4, 7, 16 and 37] 4000-3000 BC C 4 samples of 16223T, 16298C, 16327T Molodin 2012
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut 5 and 38] 4000-3000 BC A 2 samples of 16148T, 16223T, 16227C, 16290T, 16311C, 16319A Molodin 2012
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut 9] 4000-3000 BC U5a1 16192T, 16256T, 16270T Molodin 2012
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut 14] 4000-3000 BC U5a1 16192T, 16256T, 16270T, 16318 Molodin 2012
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut 19] 4000-3000 BC U4 16356C Molodin 2012
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut 31 and 32] 4000-3000 BC Z 2 samples of 16185T, 16223T, 16260T, 16298C, 16300G Molodin 2012
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut 33 and 34] 4000-3000 BC Z 2 samples of 16185T, 16223T, 16260T, 16298C, 16298C Molodin 2012
Novosvobodnaya Russia Klady 3500 BC V7 T72C, A93G, C2515T, G9378A, C9541T, C11018T, A11720G, C11723T, G12851A, A14906G, A15302G, C15477T Nedoluzhko 2014
Late Eneolithic Bulgaria Durankulak [DUR1] 5,500–4,000 y. a. U52a2 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 14793G, 16114A 16192T 16256T 16270T 16294T, reported as U Wilde 2014
Late Eneolithic Ukraine Mayaki [MAJ8] 5,500–4,000 y. a. T2b 4216C, 4917G, 7028T, 11719A, 14766T, 16126C 16294T 16296T 16304C, reported as T Wilde 2014
Late Eneolithic Ukraine Mayaki [MAJ9] 5,500–4,000 y. a. W 7028T, 8251A, 11719A, 11947G, 12705Y, 14766T, 16223T 16292T Wilde 2014
Late Eneolithic Ukraine Molyukhov Bugor [MOB1] 5,500–4,000 y. a. U5a1 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 14793G, 16192T 16256T 16270T 16399G, reported as U Wilde 2014
Late Eneolithic Ukraine Molyukhov Bugor [MOB3] 5,500–4,000 y. a. U/K 7028T, 8251R, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 16192T 16256T 16270T 16399G Wilde 2014
Italy Ötztal Alps [Otzi]
Brown eyes; brown hair; fair skin
M 3350-3100 BC G2a1b2 L91
K1f 263G, 8137T, 1189C, 1811G, 9055A, 9698C, 14167T, 16224C, 16311C, 16362C, reported as K1ö.

Mitosearch: 4q6ja

Rollo 2006; Ermini 2008; Endicott 2009;
Keller 2012
Portugal Cova da Moura [CM 183*] 3400 BC H CRS, -7025 Afonso 2010
Portugal Cova da Moura [CM 187] 3400 BC X2b 16189C, 16223T, 16278T, +14465 Afonso 2010
Portugal Cova da Moura [CM 194 ] 3400 BC H 16111T, 16129A, +7025 Afonso 2010
Portugal Cova da Moura [CM 202] 3400 BC U5 or HV2 16217C, 16270A Afonso 2010
Portugal Dólmen do Ansião [DEA 50*] 3300 BC H or U4 16356C Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PM 13297] 3000 BC H or HV* CRS, -12308, -11719 Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PM 13514] 3000 BC HV* or L3*/N* 16223T, 16278T, 16311C Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PM 13622] 3000 BC U CRS, +7025 +12308 Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PM 14638] 3000 BC U5b2* 16192T, 16217C, 16270A, +12308 Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PM 14714] 3000 BC H CRS, -7025, -12308, -11719 Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PM 15079] 3000 BC U4 16356C, +7025, +12308 Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PM 15986] 3000 BC H 16270T, -7025, -12308, -11719 Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PM 17334] 3000 BC H 16147T, -12308, -11719 Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PM 17480] 3000 BC H, HV* or R0 CRS, -12308 Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PMII 527, 542] 3000 BC H 2 samples 16183C, 16189C, -7025 Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PMII 556] 3000 BC H CRS, -7025 Afonso 2010
Portugal Paimogo [PMII 591] 3000 BC H 16292G, -7025, -11719 Afonso 2010
Portugal Monte Canelas [MCI 169.23*] 3000 BC H, HV* or R0 CRS, -12308 Afonso 2010
Portugal Monte Canelas [MCI 176.1] 3000 BC H 16294T, 16304C, -7025, -12308, -11719 Afonso 2010
Portugal Monte Canelas [MCI 206.4*] 3000 BC H CRS, -7025. Afonso 2010
Portugal Monte Canelas [MCI282.3.1] 3000 BC H or V 16256T, -12308 Afonso 2010
Portugal Monte Canelas [MCI 288.5] 3000 BC H 16256T, -7025 Afonso 2010
Portugal Monte Canelas [MCI 337*] 3000 BC H 16356C, -7025 Afonso 2010
Portugal Monte Canelas [MCI 384.11*] 3000 BC H 16311C, 16354T, -12308 Afonso 2010
Portugal Monte Canelas [MCI 386.37 ] 3000 BC U5a1 16256T, 16270T, 16274A Afonso 2010
Portugal Monte Canelas [MCI 435.3] 3000 BC H 16093C, -7025 Afonso 2010
Yamnaya Bulgaria Benkovski [BEN3] 5000–4500 y.a. H 4937C, 8935T, 13269G, 16188T Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Russia Kalinovka I [KAL1] 5000–4500 y.a. N1a 669C, 7028T, 10398G, 11719A, 12705T, 14766T, 16147G 16172C 16223T 16248T 16344T 16355T Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Russia Kalinovka I [KAL2] 5000–4500 y.a. H Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Ukraine Mayaki [MAJ3] 5000–4500 y.a. ? 7028T, 11719A, 14766T, 16256T 16270T 16399G Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Ukraine Mayaki [MAJ4] 5000–4500 y.a. U5 4194Y, 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 13637G, 14766T, 16192T 16311C, reported as U Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Ukraine Mayaki [MAJ5] 5000–4500 y.a. X 6371T, 7028T, 11719A, 12705T, 14766T, 16136C 16189C 16223T 16278T Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Russia Nikolaevka III [NIK1] 5000–4500 y.a. T1a 4216C, 4917G, 7028T, 11719A, 12346T, 14766T, 16163G 16186T 16189C 16294T, reported as T Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Russia Nikolaevka III [NIK7] 5000–4500 y.a. H 13680T, rCRS in HV1 Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Russia Olennii [OLE1] 5000–4500 y.a. T 4126C, 4917G, 7028T, 11719A, 14766T, 16126C 16292T 16294T Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Russia Olennii [OLE7] 5000–4500 y.a. J 4126C, 7028T, 10398G, 11719A, 13708A, 14766T, 14769G, 16048A 16069T 16126C 16193T Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Bulgaria Ovchartsi [OVI2] 5000–4500 y.a. K 7028T, 10398G, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 14798C, 16224C 16290T 16311C Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Bulgaria Ovchartsi [OVI3] 5000–4500 y.a. U/K 11719A, 12308G, 14766T Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Russia Peschanyi [PEJ1] 5000–4500 y.a. U5a1 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 14793G, 16192T 16256T 16270T 16399G Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Ukraine Pestchanka [PES7] 5000–4500 y.a. H 481T, 16042A 16209C Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Russia Podlesnyj [POD1] 5000–4500 y.a. W 7028T, 8251A, 8994A, 11719A, 11947G, 12705T, 14766T, 16192T 16223T 16292T 16325C Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Russia Podlesnyj [POD2] 5000–4500 y.a. T 4216C, 4917G, 7028T, 11719A, 14766T, 16126C 16292T 16294T Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Bulgaria Golyamata Mogila, Popovo [POP1] 5000–4500 y.a. T2a1b1a 4216C, 4917G, 7028T, 9117C, 11719A, 14766T, 16126C 16294T 16296T 16324C, reported as T Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Bulgaria Golyamata Mogila, Popovo [POP3] 5000–4500 y.a. U2e1a 7028T, 10876G, 11719A, 11732C, 12308G, 13734C, 14766T, 16051G 16129C 16362C, reported as U Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Bulgaria Golyamata Mogila, Popovo [POP4] 5000–4500 y.a. U5a1 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 14793G, 16256T 16270T 16399G, reported as U Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Bulgaria Riltsi [RIL3] 5000–4500 y.a. K 7028T, 10398G, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 14798C, 16192T 16224C 16311C Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Ukraine Kirovograd Sugokleya [SUG2] 5000–4500 y.a. I 4529T, 7028T, 8251A, 8260C, 10398G, 11719A, 12705T, 14766T, 16129A 16172C 16223T 16311C 16391A Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Ukraine Kirovograd Sugokleya [SUG6] 5000–4500 y.a. H 7028Y, 16362C Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Ukraine Kirovograd Sugokleya [SUG7] 5000–4500 y.a. H rCRS in HV1 Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Ukraine Kirovograd Sugokleya [SUG8] 5000–4500 y.a. H 3010R, 14766T, rCRS in HV1 Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Moldova Tetcani [TET2] 5000–4500 y.a. U 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 16134T 16356C Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Ukraine Vinogradnoe [VIN2, VIN5] 5000–4500 y.a. T1a 2 samples of 4216C, 4917G, 7028T, 11719A, 14766T, 16126C 16163G 16186T 16189C 16294T, reported as T Wilde 2014
Yamnaya Ukraine Vinogradnoe [VIN12] 5000–4500 y.a. T1 4216C, 4917G, 7028T, 11719A, 14766T, 16126C 16163G 16294T, reported as T Wilde 2014
Globular Amphora Poland Kowal, Kuyavia region 2850-2570 BC K2a* Kozlowski 2014
Corded Ware Poland Jagodno, Wroclaw [1] M 2800 BC G? Gworys 2013
Corded Ware Poland Jagodno, Wroclaw [2] M 2800 BC J or I? Gworys 2013

Spain Pico Ramos, Bizkaia
2790-2100 BC

H 9 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999

Spain Pico Ramos, Bizkaia
2790-2100 BC

J 4 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999

Spain Pico Ramos, Bizkaia
2790-2100 BC

K 4 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999

Spain Pico Ramos, Bizkaia
2790-2100 BC

U 3 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999

Spain Pico Ramos, Bizkaia
2790-2100 BC

T or X 4 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999
Catacomb Ukraine Krasnorechensk [KNO4] 4,700–4,500 y. a. U 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 16356C Wilde 2014
Catacomb Ukraine Lisichansk [LIS1] 4,700–4,500 y. a. U5a 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 16256T 16270T 16399G, reported as U Wilde 2014
Catacomb Ukraine Lisichansk [LIS2] 4,700–4,500 y. a. U 7028T, 6366C, 11719A, 12308G, 13708A, 14766T, 16356C Wilde 2014
Catacomb Ukraine Lisichansk [LIS3] 4,700–4,500 y. a. H 14793G, 16354T Wilde 2014
Catacomb Ukraine Shakhta Stepnaya [SAC2] 4,700–4,500 y. a. J 4216C, 7028T, 10398G, 11719A, 13708A, 14766T, 16069T 16126C 16193T Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Temrta III [TEM2] 4,700–4,500 y. a. H rCRS in HV1 Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Temrta V [TEM4] 4,700–4,500 y. a. U/K 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14769G, 16256T 16270T 16399G Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Temrta V [TEM5] 4,700–4,500 y. a. R1 4917G, 7028T, 8388C, 11719A, 14766T, 16311C Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Temrta V [TEM6] 4,700–4,500 y. a. R1 4917G, 7028T, 8388C, 11719A, 16311C Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Temrta V [TEM7] 4,700–4,500 y. a. U 7028T, 12308G, 14766T, 816356C Wilde 2014
Mongolia Takhilgat Uzuur-5 [TU31]
Black/dark brown hair; brown eyes
M 2742 BC Q-M242 R1b1* 16037G, 16311C, 16319A Hollard 2014
Corded Ware? Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 6] 2700-2400 BC H1ca1 G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A769G A825t A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T G3010A T3594C G4104A T4312C T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G A8149G T8468C T8655C G8701A A9377G T9467C C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C A13671G T14319C T14766C A16129G T16187C T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brotherton 2013; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Karsdorf [KAR 2] 2698-2658 BC U4 A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T T16356C T16362C Brandt 2013
Corded Ware? Germany Karsdorf [KAR 24] J1c C146T C152T G185A C195T G228A A247G C295T C16069T T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Baden Hungary Apc-Berekalja I. [CO1] F 2900-2700 BC H Gamba 2014
Corded Ware Germany Karsdorf [KAR 26 and 46] 2565-2521 BC (date for sample 46) T2b4f 2 samples C146T C195T A247G T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T T16304C C16311T Brandt 2013
Corded Ware? Germany Karsdorf [KAR 27] U4a1 A16129G C16134T T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T T16356C Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Karsdorf [KAR 28] 2600 BC U2e2 A16051G T16092C A16129c T16187C T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T T16362C Brandt 2013
Corded Ware? Germany Karsdorf [KAR 30] T2 C195T A247G T279C T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T C16296T C16311T Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Karsdorf [KAR 31 and 41] 2614-2578 BC (date for sample 41) T1a1'3 2 samples C146T A247G T16126C A16129G A16163G C16186T T16187C T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T C16311T Brandt 2013
Corded Ware? Germany Karsdorf [KAR 38] U5a1b1 A16129G T16187C C16189T C16192T T16223C G16230A C16256T C16270T T16278C C16291T C16311T A16399G Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Karsdorf [KAR 56] 2600 BC U5b C146T C150T C152T C195T A247G A16129G T16187C C16189T C16192T T16223C G16230A C16270T T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Karsdorf [KAR 58] 2600 BC H G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Eulau [EUL 6 (98-7)] F 2600 BC

H10e T16093C A16129G T16187C C16189T C16221T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Haak 2008
Corded Ware Germany Eulau [EUL 1 (90-5)] F 2600 BC

I T16187C C16189T G16230A T16278C C16311T G16391A Haak 2008; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Eulau [EUL 3 (93-13)] ? 2600 BC

K1a24a A16129G G16145A T16187C C16189T T16223C T16224C G16230A T16278C Haak 2008; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Eulau [EUL 10 (99-1)] F 2600 BC

K1 T16093C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C T16224C G16230A T16278C G16319A Haak 2008; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Eulau [EUL 11 (99-2) and 12 (99-4)] M 2600 BC R1a1 SRY10831.2
Y-Search 2C46S
K1 Siblings, children of 99-1 and 99-3. T16093C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C T16224C G16230A T16278C G16319A
Haak 2008; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Eulau [EUL 9 (99-3)] M 2600 BC R1a1 SRY10831.2
Y-Search 2C46S
U5b1a'b A16129G T16187C C16192T T16223C G16230A C16270T T16278C C16311T Haak 2008; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Eulau [EUL 7 (98-10) and 8 (98-9)] M + F 2600 BC

X2b1'2'3'4'5'6 Siblings in same grave. C146T C152T A153G G225A T226C A247G A16129G T16187C G16230A C16311T
Haak 2008; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware? Germany Eulau [EUL 25]
T1a T16126C A16129G A16163G C16186T T16187C T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T C16311T Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Eulau [EUL 26] 2628-2570 BC
H5 A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C T16304C C16311T Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Eulau [EUL 27] 2568-2518 BC
H2a1 A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T C16354T Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Esperstedt [ESP 20, 25 and 28] 2573-2511 BC

(date for sample 25)


J 3 samples C16069T T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Esperstedt [ESP 14] 2500-2400 BC

K A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C T16224C G16230A T16278C Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Esperstedt [ESP 26] 2500-2400 BC

T2b2b T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T C16311T T16324C Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Esperstedt [ESP 5 and 19] 2500-2400 BC

U5a 2 samples of A16129G T16187C C16189T C16192T T16223C G16230A C16256T C16270T T16278C C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Esperstedt [ESP 11] M 2500-2400 BC

U4 A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T T16356C T16362C Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Esperstedt [ESP 17] 2500-2400 BC

U5a1a'g A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A C16256T C16270T T16278C C16311T A16399G Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Esperstedt [ESP 16] 2500-2400 BC

W6a'b A16129G T16187C C16189T C16192T G16230A T16278C C16292T C16311T T16325C Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Esperstedt [ESP22] 2500-2400 BC

X A16129G T16187C G16230A C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Catacomb Ukraine Nevskoe [NEV1] 4500–4000 y ago U 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 14793G, 16192T 16256T 16270T 16399G Wilde 2014
Catacomb Ukraine Nevskoe [NEV3] 4500–4000 y ago H 16362C Wilde 2014
Catacomb Ukraine Novozvanovka II [NOZ1, NOZ2] 4500–4000 y ago U 2 samples of 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 16356C Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Peschanyi [PEJ2] 4500–4000 y ago H 16234T Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Peschanyi [PEJ3] 4500–4000 y ago H 16362C Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Peschanyi [PEJ4] 4500–4000 y ago H 16362C Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Peschanyi [PEJ5] 4500–4000 y ago U 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 16356C Wilde 2014
Catacomb Ukraine Kirovograd Sugokleya [SUG5] 4500–4000 y ago H 16362C Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Temrta III [TEM1] 4500–4000 y ago U 7028T, 11719A, 12308R, 16356C Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Temrta III [TEM3] 4500–4000 y ago J1 462T, 3010A, 4216C, 7028T, 8269A, 10398G, 11719A, 13708A, 14766T, 16069T 16126C 16145A 16172C 16222T 16261T Wilde 2014
Catacomb Russia Temrta V [TEM8] 4500–4000 y ago U 7028T, 11719A, 12308G, 14766T, 14793G Wilde 2014
Catacomb Moldova Tetcani [TET1] 4500–4000 y ago I 4529T, 7028T, 8251A, 10398G, 11719A, 12705T, 14766T, 216223T 16391A Wilde 2014
Catacomb Ukraine Vinogradnoe [VIN3] 4500–4000 y ago U 11719A, 12308G, 14793G, 16256T 16270T 16399G Wilde 2014
Catacomb Ukraine Vinogradnoe [VIN8] 4500–4000 y ago J1 462T, 3010A, 4216C, 7028T, 8269A, 10398G, 11719A, 13708A, 14766T, 16069T 16126C 16145A 16172C 16222T 16261T Wilde 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [1] 2,400 BC T2 16294T 16296T 16324C Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [2] 2,400 BC X 16189C 16223T 16278T 16352C Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [3, 11, 18, 19] 2,400 BC H 3 samples CRS Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [4] 2,400 BC T2 16126C 16294T 16296T 16324C Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [5] 2,400 BC X2 189C 223T 278T (358T) Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [6, 9] 2,400 BC X2 2 samples 16189C 16223T 16278T Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [8, 15] 2,400 BC T2b 2 samples 16126C 16294T 16296T 16304C Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [10] 2,400 BC K 16224C 16256T 16311C Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [12, 22] 2,400 BC K 2 samples 16224C 16311C Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [13] 2,400 BC H 16278T Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [16] 2,400 BC K 16093C 16224T 16311C Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [20] 2,400 BC J1+16193/J2b 16069T 16126C 16193T 16274A 16278T Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [25] 2,400 BC U3 16343G Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Spain El Mirador, Burgos [26] 2,400 BC J2a1a 16069T 16126C 16145A 16231C 16261T Gómez-Sánchez 2014
Corded Ware Germany Esperstedt [ESP 15] 2465-2395 BC H6a1a G73A C146T C152T C195T T239C A247G A769G A825t A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C G3915A G4104A T4312C A4727G T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A G9380A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T T11253C A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C T14766C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T T16362C A16482G Brotherton 2013; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Quedlinburg [QUEXII 1] F 2300-2130 BC

H4a1 G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A769G A825t A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C C3992T A4024G G4104A T4312C T5004C T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A G9123A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C C14365T A14582G T14766C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany Quedlinburg [QLB 23]
H C16114a A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany [OBW 1] 2700-2400 BC

HV0e A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C T16298C Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany [OBW 2] 2700-2400 BC
H A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany [OBW 3] 2700-2400 BC H T16093C A16129G T16187C C16189T C16192T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Corded Ware Germany [OBW 4] 2700-2400 BC

T2c T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16292T C16294T C16311T Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Kromsdorf [grave 3] M 2600–2500 BC U2e 16051G, 16092C, 16129C, 16182C, 16183C, 16189C, 16362C, 73G, 152C, 263G Lee 2012
Bell Beaker Germany Kromsdorf [grave 4a] F 2600–2500 BC W5a 16223T, 16292T, 16362C, 73G, 189G, 194T, 195C, 204C, 207A, 263G Lee 2012
Bell Beaker Germany Kromsdorf [grave 5] M 2600–2500 BC R1b1b2 M343, M269, (x S21/U106) I1a1 16129A, 16172C, 16223T, 16311C, 16391A, 73G, 199C, 203A, 204C, 250C, 263G, reported as I1. Lee 2012; Oliveiri 2013.

Bell Beaker Germany Kromsdorf [grave 8] M 2600–2500 BC R1b M343 (M269 unclear) K1 16093C, 16224C, 16311C, 16319A, 73G, 152C, 195C, 263G Lee 2012
Bell Beaker Germany Kromsdorf [grave 9a] F 2600–2500 BC U5a1 16256T, 16270T, 16399G, 73G, 73G, 152C, 263G Lee 2012
Bell Beaker Germany Kromsdorf [grave 9b] M 2600–2500 BC T1a 16126C, 16163G, 16186T, 16189C, 16294T, 195C, 263G Lee 2012
Corded Ware Switzerland Spreitenbach-Moosweg [1, 18/13] M + F 2500 BC J1c 2 samples 73G, 185A, 228A, 263G, 295T, 315.1C, 12612. 16069T, 16126C Warnberg 2012
Corded Ware Switzerland Spreitenbach-Moosweg [2] F 2500 BC T2b 133681, 6126C, 16294T, 16296T, 16304C Warnberg 2012
Corded Ware Switzerland Spreitenbach-Moosweg [3] F 2500 BC K 73G, 195C, 263G, 315.1C, 10550, 16224C, 16311C Warnberg 2012
Corded Ware Switzerland Spreitenbach-Moosweg [8, 9, 15/4] M + F 2500 BC H11a 3 samples 152C, 195C, 263G, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C, 7028, 16293G, 16311C, reported as H Warnberg 2012
Corded Ware Switzerland Spreitenbach-Moosweg [11/7] 2500 BC U2e1 11467, 16051G, 16129C, 16183C, 16189C, 16362C Warnberg 2012
Corded Ware Switzerland Spreitenbach-Moosweg [16/10] M 2500 BC H 7028, 16189C. Warnberg 2012
Corded Ware Switzerland Spreitenbach-Moosweg [17/5] F 2500 BC J2b1a 12612, 16069T, 16126C, 16193T, 16278T Warnberg 2012
Bell Beaker Germany Quedlinburg [QLB 19] 2500-2050 BC U5a1a'g C146T C152T C195T A247G A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A C16256T C16270T T16278C C16311T A16399G Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Quedlinburg [QLB 24] 2500-2050 BC H5 G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C T16304C C16311T Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Quedlinburg [QLB 25] 2500-2050 BC T2e T16126C A16129G G16153A T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T C16296T C16311T Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Rothenschirmbach [ROT 3]

2500-2050 BC

K T16086C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C T16224C G16230A T16278C Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker? Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 4] 2500–2050 BC H1e8 G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A769G A825t A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T G3010A T3594C G4104A T4312C G5460A T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C T14766C A15220G A15401G A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C A16293G C16311T Brotherton 2013; Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker? Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 2] 2500–2050 BC U5a1b1 A16129G T16187C C16189T C16192T T16223C G16230A C16256T C16270T T16278C C16291T C16311T A16399G Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker? Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 15] 2500–2050 BC W A16129G T16187C C16189T G16230A T16278C C16292T C16311T Brandt 2013

Spain Longar, Nafarroa
2580-2450 BC

H 11 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999

Spain Longar, Nafarroa
2580-2450 BC

K 6 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999

Spain Longar, Nafarroa
2580-2450 BC

U 4 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999

Spain Longar, Nafarroa
2580-2450 BC

T or X 4 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999
Portugal Sao Paulo [SP 5730, 8001, 18248] 2500 BC H 3 samples CRS, -7025. Afonso 2010
Portugal Sao Paulo [SP 9222*] 2500 BC H, HV* or R0 CRS, -12308 Afonso 2010
Portugal Sao Paulo [SP 18861] 2500 BC H CRS, -7025, -11719, -12308 Afonso 2010
Bell Beaker Germany Rothenschirmbach [ROT 2 and 6] F 2497-2436 BC (Date for ROT 6) H5a3 2 samples of G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G C456T G513A A769G A825t A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C G4104A T4312C T4336C T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C T14766C G15884A A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C T16304C C16311T C16519T Adler 2012; Brotherton 2013; Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Alberstedt [ALB 2] 2494-2344 BC

H G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Quedlinburg [QLB 38] 2460-2280 BC H A16129G T16187C T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Rothenschirmbach [ROT 4]

2414-2333 BC

H A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A C16256T T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Alberstedt [ALB 1] 2371-2282 BC

H3b G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A769G A825t A1018G A2581G G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C G4104A T4312C T6776C T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C T14766C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brotherton 2013; Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Quedlinburg [QLB 26 and 28] 2360-2190 BC H1 2 samples G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A769G A825t A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T G3010A T3594C G4104A T4312C T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C T14766C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brotherton 2013; Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Eulau [EUL 23] 2351-2282 BC
H G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G G263A A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Rothenschirmbach [ROT 1]

2345-2198 BC

H3ao2 G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A769G A825t A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C G4104A T4312C C4577T T6776C T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C T14766C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A C16256T T16278C C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Quedlinburg [QUEXII 3] 2340-2190 BC H13a1a2c G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A769G A825t A1018G C2259T G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C G4104A T4312C A4745G T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A G9025A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C A13542G T13650C C13680T T14766C C14872T A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T C16519T Adler 2012; Brotherton 2013; Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Karsdorf [KAR 51] 2314-2278 BC
U4c1 C146T C152T A247G A16129G C16179T T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T T16356C Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Quedlinburg [QLB 27] 2300-2130 BC U5b A16129G T16187C G16213A T16223C G16230A C16270T T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Quedlinburg [QUEXII 4] 2290-2130 BC J C16069T T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013

Spain Nerja, Málaga [NE-NAP]
2260 BC

H11a or L1b 16129A, 16264T, 16270T, 16278T, 16293G, 16311C Fernández 2005
Corded Ware Germany Karsdorf [KAR 53] 2260-2203 BC K2a5 C195T A247G C324T A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C T16224C G16230A T16278C Brandt 2013

Spain Abauntz, Navarra [ABb1.1] M? 2240 BC

H? CRS Fernández 2005

Spain Abauntz, Navarra [AB23C]
2240 BC

R or H? 16126C, 16311C Fernández 2005

Spain Abauntz, Navarra [AB25E]
2240 BC

H14? 16256T Fernández 2005
Bell Beaker Germany Karsdorf [KAR 5]
U5b A16129G T16187C C16189T C16192T T16223C G16230A C16270T T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 7 and 12] 2201-2136 BC U5a1a'g 2 samples of A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A C16256T C16270T T16278C C16311T A16399G Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Denmark Damsbo [D 1]
2200 BC

U4 7028T, 12308G, 16356C Melchior 2010
Bell Beaker Denmark Damsbo [D 2]
2200 BC

U5a2a? 7028T, 12308G, 16114A, 16192T, 16256T, 16270T, 16294T, reported as U5a Melchior 2010
Bell Beaker Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 5] 2198-2161 BC T2a1b T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T C16311T T16324C Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Karsdorf [KAR 52 ] 2083-2042 BC
U4c1 C146T C152T A247G A16129G C16179T T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T T16356C Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Eulau [EUL 22] 2198-2162 BC
W A16129G T16187C C16189T G16230A T16278C C16292T C16311T Brandt 2013
Bell Beaker Germany Eulau [EUL 31]
T1a T16126C A16129G T16140C A16163G C16186T T16187C T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T C16311T Brandt 2013

Spain Tres Montes, Navarra [TM-3]
2130 BC

L2 16261T, 16278T, 16294T, 16309G Fernández 2005

Spain Tres Montes, Navarra [TM-6]
2130 BC

H or K 16224C Fernández 2005

Spain Tres Montes, Navarra [TM-8]
2130 BC

R or H? 16126C, 16311C Fernández 2005

Spain Tres Montes, Navarra [TM-11]
2130 BC


16261T, 16278T, 16294T, 16309G Fernández 2005

Spain Tres Montes, Navarra [TM-18]
2130 BC

L2 16261T, 16278T 16294T, 16309G Fernández 2005
Bell Beaker? Germany Quedlinburg [QUEXII 2] 2050-1940 BC H4a1 G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A769G A825t A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C C3992T A4024G G4104A T4312C T5004C T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A G9123A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C C14365T A14582G T14766C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T C16519T Adler 2012; Brotherton 2013; Brandt 2013

Spain Costa Lloguera, Castellon de la Plana [COST1]



H 16293R [in 2008 study] Fernández 2006; Gamba 2008; Oliver 2008

Spain Costa Lloguera, Castellon de la Plana [COST3]



R? 16223Y [in 2008 study], reported as L3a? Fernández 2006; Gamba 2008; Oliver 2008

Spain Costa Lloguera, Castellon de la Plana [COST4, COST5, 3COST4]



H or U 3 samples CRS Fernández 2006; Gamba 2008

Spain Costa Lloguera, Castellon de la Plana [3COST1, 3COST3]



H or RO 2 samples 16362C Fernández 2006

Spain Malpaso cave, Castellnovo (Castellon) [1MP1]



D 16223T, 16325C, 16362C Gamba 2008

Spain Malpaso cave [4MP12]



V 16298C Gamba 2008

Spain Malpaso cave [2MP4]



H20? (reported as L3?) 16218T, 16223T Gamba 2008

Spain Jovellus sepulchre, Benicassim (Castellon) [1JO1]



H20? (reported as L3?) 16218Y, 16223Y Gamba 2008

Spain Assud de Villareal 2nd sepulchre, Almassora (Castellon) [1AV1]



H20? (reported as L3?) 16218Y, 16223Y Gamba 2008
Spain El Portalón, Sierra de Atapuerca M 2000 BC U5b1b Daskalaki 2014

Bronze Age

Sumerian Syria Mari [1]
2900-2700 BC

H14a 16256T, 16297C Fernández 2005
Sumerian Syria Mari [2]
2900-2700 BC

U4 16356C Fernández 2005
Sumerian Syria Mari [5]
2900-2700 BC

U4a2b 16223T, 16356C Fernández 2005
Amorite? Syria Terqa (Tell Ashara), Middle Euphrates Valley [TQ 28 F250] F 2650–2450 BC

K 16224C, 16311C Tomczyk 2010
Syria Terqa [TQ 28F 112] M 2650–2450 BC M49 16223T, 16234T Witas 2013
Sumerian Syria Mari [10]
2550 BC

R 16223T Fernández 2005
Sumerian Syria Mari [11]
2550 BC

J1a1 16126C, 16145A, 16231C, 16356C Fernández 2005
Sumerian Syria Mari [12]
2550 BC

L2a1 16223T, 16256T, 16261T, 16278T, 16294T, 16309G Fernández 2005
Syria Terqa [TQ 28F 256] M 2200–1900 BC M61 16223T, 16234T, 16270T Witas 2013

Turkey Titriş Höyük [TH6070, TH6075, TH11704, TH60214, TH63203, TH63218, TH80076, TH80078, TH80080, TH80086] 4 F, 3 M + 3 child 2300-2100 BC

H? 10 samples of CRS Matney 2010

Turkey Titriş Höyük [TH14110] F 2300-2100 BC

? 16278 Matney 2010

Turkey Titriş Höyük [TH80088] M 2300-2100 BC

? 16139 Matney 2010
Thracian Romania South East [1BA]
2100-1200 BC

H17 16129C Cardos 2004
Thracian Romania South East [5BA]
2100-1200 BC

? 16186T, 16189C 16299T Cardos 2004
Thracian Romania South East [7BA]
2100-1200 BC

? 16129A, 16223T Cardos 2004
Thracian Romania South East [8BA]
2100-1200 BC

H22? 16145A Cardos 2004
Thracian Romania South East [9BA]
2100-1200 BC

HV? 16311C Cardos 2004
Unetice Germany Alberstedt [ALB 3] 2200-1550 BC

HV A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C Brandt 2013
Unetice? Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH1] 2200-1550 BC H11a G73A C146T C152T A247G A769G A825t T961g A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C G4104A T4312C T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8448C T8468C T8655C G8701A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C G13759A T14766C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C A16293G C16519T Brotherton 2013; Brandt 2013
Mako Hungary Kompolt-Kigyoser [BR1] F 2190-1980 BC K1c1 Gamba 2014
Unetice Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 3 and 10] 1923-1878 and 1983-1939 BC X A16129G T16187C G16230A C16311T Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 8] 1982-1942 BC H2a1a3 G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A769G A825t G951A A1018G G1438A G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C G4104A T4312C G4769A C6173T T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C T13095C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C T14766C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A A16240t T16278C C16311T C16354T C16519T Brotherton 2013; Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 9] 1653-1627 BC K A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C T16224C G16230A T16278C Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 13] 1804-1772 BC T2b T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T C16296T T16304C C16311T Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 14] 2200-1575 BC H82a G73A C146T C152T A247G A769G A825t A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C G4104A T4312C T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C T14766C A16129G T16187C C16189T A16220G T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brotherton 2013; Brandt 2013
Unetice? Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 17] 1653-1627 BC U5a1a'g A16129G T16187C T16223C G16230A C16256T C16270T T16278C C16311T A16399G Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg [BZH 18] 1653-1627 BC I3a T16086C T16187C C16189T G16230A T16278C C16311T G16391A Brandt 2013
Unetice? Germany Eulau [EUL 28] 2034-1954 BC J1b1a1 C16069T T16126C A16129G G16145A T16172C T16187C C16189T C16222T T16223C G16230A C16261T T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 35] 2200-1550 BC H A16129G T16187C T16223C G16230A T16278C T16304C C16311T Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 36 and 37] 1978-1921 BC H 2 samples G73A C146T C152T C195T A247G A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 40] 1977-1915 BC V A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C T16298C C16311T Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 41] 2200-1550 BC H4a1a1a2 C146T C152T C195T A247G A769G A825t A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C C3992T A4024G G4104A T4312C T5004C T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G G8269A T8468C T8655C G8701A G9123A C9540T A10044G G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C C13545T T13650C C14365T A14582G T14766C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T C16519T Brotherton 2013 ; Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 42] 2200-1550 BC K C195T A247G A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C T16224C G16230A T16278C Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 47] 2133-2080 BC K2 C152T C195T A247G A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C T16224C G16230A T16278C Brandt 2013
Unetice? Germany Eulau [EUL 48] 2200-1550 BC K1a T16093C A16129G T16187C T16223C T16224C G16230A T16278C Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 49] 1951-1884 BC T2b T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T T16304C C16311T Brandt 2013
Unetice? Germany Eulau [EUL 50] 2200-1550 BC W T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T T16304C C16311T Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 51] 2200-2136 BC U2e1f A16051G A16129c T16187C T16223C G16230A T16278C T16362C Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 53, 60, 61, 62] 1979-1921 BC for EUL 53 I1a1 4 samples of C146T C152T C195T T199C G203A T204C A247G T250C T16172C T16187C C16189T G16230A T16278C G16391A Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 57A] 2030-1987 BC U5 A16129G T16187C C16189T C16192T C16201T T16223C G16230A C16256T T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 57B] 2200-1550 BC H3+T152C! G73A C146T C195T A247GA769G A825t A1018G G2706A A2758G C2885T T3594C G4104A T4312C T6776C T7028C G7146A T7256C A7521G T8468C T8655C G8701A C9540T G10398A T10664C A10688G C10810T C10873T C10915T A11719G A11914G T12705C G13105A G13276A T13506C T13650C T14766C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16311T Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Eulau [EUL 59] 2200-1550 BC HV6 A16129G T16172C T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Quedlinburg [QUEVIII 4] 2050-1800 BC H7h A4793G, G16213A Adler 2012; Brotherton 2013
Unetice Germany Esperstedt [ESP 2 and 29] 2050-1800 BC I3a 2 samples of T16086C T16187C C16189T G16230A T16278C C16311T G16391A Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Esperstedt [ESP 6] 2050-1800 BC I1 T16187C C16189T G16230A G16391A Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Esperstedt [ESP 23] 2050-1800 BC U5a2a C16114a A16129G T16187C C16189T C16192T T16223C G16230A C16256T C16270T T16278C C16294T C16311T Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Quedlinburg [QUEVIII 3] M 2050-1800 BC T1 T16126C, A16163G, C16186T, T16189C, C16294T Adler 2012
Unetice Germany Quedlinburg [QUEXIV 1] F 2050-1800 BC T2 T16126C, 16292T, 16294T Adler 2012
Unetice? Germany Esperstedt [ESP 27] F 2155-2034 BC T2c T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16292T C16294T C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Esperstedt [ESP 18] M 1776-1664 BC T2b T16126C A16129G T16187C C16189T T16223C G16230A T16278C C16294T C16296T T16304C C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Quedlinburg [QUEVIII 6] F 2050-1800 BC U T16189C Adler 2012
Unetice Germany Quedlinburg [QUEVIII 2] F 2050-1800 BC U2 A16126C, A16163G, G16129c, A16183c, T16189C, T16362C Adler 2012
Unetice? Germany Esperstedt [ESP 3] 2050-1800 BC U5a1 A16129G T16187C C16189T C16192T T16223C G16230A C16256T C16270T T16278C C16311T A16399G Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Esperstedt [ESP 31] 2050-1800 BC ; Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Quedlinburg [QUEVIII 5] 2050-1800 BC U5a1a 16256T, 16270T, a16399G Adler 2012
Unetice Germany Quedlinburg [QUEXII 7] F 2050-1800 BC U5a1a C16192T, C16222T, C16256T, C16270T, a16399G Adler 2012
Unetice Germany Esperstedt [ESP 9] M 1981-1878 BC U5b1a'b A16129G T16187C C16192T T16223C G16230A C16270T T16278C C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Unetice? Germany Esperstedt [ESP 4] M 2050-1800 BC W3a1 A16129G C16147g T16187C C16189T G16230A T16278C C16292T C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Esperstedt [ESP 12 and 31] F 2050-1800 BC X Two samples A16129G T16187C G16230A C16311T Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos cave, Lassithi plateau, Crete [6AH] 4400–3700 BP H 16266T Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [7AH] 4400–3700 BP H 2706A, (no 16519) Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [16AH, 17AH, 18AH, 20H] 4400–3700 BP H 4 samples 2706A Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [7H] 4400–3700 BP H 2706A, 16290T Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [8H] 4400–3700 BP H 2706A, 16172C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#11] 4400–3700 BP H 16290T, 16304C, 16519T Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [9AH] 4400–3700 BP H5 2706A, 16304C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [12 AH] 4400–3700 BP H7 2706G Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [2AH] 4400–3700 BP H13a1a 14766C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [1AH] 4400–3700 BP HV 14766C, 16311C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [24H] 4400–3700 BP HV 11719A, 14766C, 16311C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#6] 4400–3700 BP HV 2706G, 7028T, 11719A, 14766C, 16311C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#12] 4400–3700 BP I5 16129A, 16148T, 16186T, 16223T Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#13] 4400–3700 BP I5 199T, 250C, 16129A, 16148T, 16223T, 16391A Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#17] 4400–3700 BP I5 10034C, 16129A, 16148T, 16186T, 16223T, 16391A Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [26H] 4400–3700 BP J2 13708A, 16069T, 16126C, 16232T, 16291T, 16293C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [11AH] 4400–3700 BP K 12372A, 16111T, 16185T, 16224C, 16311C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [15AH] 4400–3700 BP K 3480G, 14167T, 16111T, 16185T, 16224C, 16311C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [11AH] 4400–3700 BP K 12372A, 16111T, 16185T, 16224C, 16311C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#14] 4400–3700 BP K 12372A, 16111T, 16224C, 16311C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#21] 4400–3700 BP K 11467G, 12308G, 16224C, 16311C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#22] 4400–3700 BP K 10550G, 11299C, 11467G, 12308G, 16224C, 16311C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#7] 4400–3700 BP R0 73A, 2706G, 7028T Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [18AH] 4400–3700 BP T 1888A, 16126C, 16294T, 16296T Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [9H] 4400–3700 BP T1 10463C, 15928A, 16126C, 16163G, 16186T, 16189C, 16263C,16294T, 16296T Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [3AH] 4400–3700 BP T2 4917G, 10463C, (no 15607), 16126C, 16294T, 16296T, 16304C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [10AH] 4400–3700 BP T2 14905A, 16126C, 16294T, 16296T Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#19] 4400–3700 BP T2 13368A, 16089A, 16126C, 16294T, 16296T, 16304C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#23] 4400–3700 BP T3 4917G, 11251G, 15607G, 15928A, 16126C, 16294T, 16296T, 16339T Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [21H] 4400–3700 BP T5 10463C, 13368A, 15607G, 15298A, 16126C, 16153A, 16240A→C, 16294T, 16296T Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#4] 4400–3700 BP U 16182A→C, 16183A→C, 16189C, 16234T, 16290T, 16324C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [4H] 4400–3700 BP U5a 12308G, 12372A, 16192T, 16256T, 16270T, 16311C Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [6H] 4400–3700 BP W 204C, 207A, 15884C, 16093C, 16223T, 16243C, 16292T Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos [#8] 4400–3700 BP X 153G, 14470C, 16145A, 16179T, 16189C, 16223T, 16278T, 16332T, 16344T, 16362C Hughey 2013
Yamna Ukraine Odessa province [L8] 3,990±70 BP (not cal.) C4a6 16218, 16223, 16288, 16298, A16305T, 16327, 16357 Newton 2011
Catacomb Ukraine Odessa province [D1.8] 3,940±70 BP (not cal.) C4a3 16223, 16278, 16298, 16327, 16357 Newton 2011
Mnogovalikovaya (KMK), or Babino Ukraine Odessa province [L15] 3,740±70 BP (not cal.) C4a6 16218, 16223, 16298, 16327, 16357 Newton 2011
Andronovo Russia Tatarka cemetery, burial 64 Charypovsky region [S07]
Brown eyes; dark brown hair; fair or medium skin
M 1800–1400 BC C (not C3) Ci in table 2 U4 16356C Keyser 2009
Andronovo Russia Tatarka, burial 55 [S08]
Brown eyes
F 1800–1400 BC

Z1 16129A, 16185T, 16223T, 16224C, 16260T, 16298C Keyser 2009
Andronovo Russia Solenoozernaïa IV, kourgane I, burial 3, Krasnoyarsk region [S09]
Blue or green eyes, blond or light brown hair, fair or medium skin
M 1800–1400 BC

T1 16126C, 16163G, 16186T, 16189C, 16294T Keyser 2009
Andronovo Russia Solenoozernaïa IV, kourgane I, burial 4 [S10] Brown hair M 1800–1400 BC R1a1a M17; Rii in table 2 U2e 16051G, 16092C, 16129C, 16183C, 16189C, 16362C Keyser 2009
Andronovo Russia Solenoozernaïa I, burial 4
[S11] Blue or green eyes
F 1800–1400 BC

T2a1b1 16126C, 16294T 16324C, reported as T4. Keyser 2009
Andronovo Russia Solenoozernaïa IV, kurgane I, burial 4 [S13] ? 1800–1400 BC

H6 16187T, 16362C Keyser 2009
Andronovo Russia Solenoozernaïa I, burial 4
Krasnoyarsk region [S14]
Brown eyes, brown hair, fair or medium skin
F 1800–1400 BC

U4 16356C Keyser 2009
Andronovo Russia Solenoozernaïa I, burial 29
[S15] Blue or green eyes
? 1800–1400 BC

K2b 16093C, 16224C, 16311C, 16319A Keyser 2009
Andronovo Russia Oust-Abakansty, chief kurgan, Khakassia republic [S16] Blue or green eyes, blond or light brown hair, fair or medium skin M 1800–1400 BC R1a1a M17; Rii in table 2 U5a1 16192T, 16256T, 16270T Keyser 2009
Nuragic Italy Su Grutta ‘e is Bittuleris, Sardinia 1624 BC H1aw1 G3010A, A8701G!, C15912T Brotherton 2013
Mycenaen Greece Grave Circle B, Mycenae [55, 58]
1500 BC

K Brother and sister?
16224, 16311
Bouwman 2008
Mycenaen Greece Grave Circle B, Mycenae [Z59]
1500 BC

U5a1/U5a1a 16256, 16266, 16270 Bouwman 2008
Mycenaen Greece Grave Circle B, Mycenae [A62]
1500 BC

H? CRS Bouwman 2008
Karakol Altaï Republic mound 3, Karakol-1, Gorny Altai M 1500 BC

U5 16192, 16256, 16270 Chikisheva 2007
Karakol Altaï Republic mound 3, Karakol, Gorny Altai M 1500 BC

H 16304 Chikisheva 2007

Altaï Republic Bertek-56, Ukok Plateau M 1500 BC

H? CRS Chikisheva 2007

Ireland Glencurran Cave
1500 BC

U5

Mongolia Tsagaan Asga [TA4]
Black/dark brown hair; brown eyes
M 1371 BC R1a1a1b2-Z93 T1a 16093C, 16126C, 16163G, 16186T, 16189C, 16294T Hollard 2014
Mongolia Tsagaan Asga [TA8]
M Q1a2a1-L54 U4 16356C Hollard 2014
Mongolia Tsagaan Asga [TA9]
Black/dark brown hair; brown eyes
F D5a2 16086C, 16092C, 16164G, 16182C, 16183C, 16185T, 16189C, 16193del, 16223T, 16266T, 16362C Hollard 2014
Mongolia Tsagaan Asga [TA10]
Dark brown hair; brown eyes
M R1a1a1b2-Z93 C4a1 16093C, 16129A, 16223T, 16260T, 16263C, 16298C, 16327T Hollard 2014
Mongolia Tsagaan Asga [TA11]
Black/dark brown hair; brown eyes
M Q1a2a1-L54 D 16223T, 16362C Hollard 2014
Mongolia Tsagaan Asga [TA12]
Black/dark brown hair; brown eyes
M Q1a2a1-L54 H7e* 16305G, 16311C Hollard 2014
Mongolia Tsagaan Asga [TA14]
Brown hair; blue eyes
M R1a1a1b2-Z93 D2 16092C, 16129A, 16223T, 16362C Hollard 2014
Mongolia Takhilgat Uzuur-5 [TU15]
Dark brown hair; brown eyes
F 1358 BC H1b 16183C, 16189C, 16356C Hollard 2014
Kyjatice Hungary Ludas-Varjudilo [BR2] M 1270-1110 BC J2a1 K1a1a Gamba 2014
Mongolia Takhilgat Uzuur-5 [TU34]
Dark blond/ brown hair; brown eyes
M 1011 BC R1a1a1b2-Z93 H/U CRS Hollard 2014
Mongolia Takhilgat Uzuur-5 [TU18] ? 944 BC D 16223T, 16311C, 16362C Hollard 2014
Mongolia Takhilgat Uzuur-5 [TU17]
Dark brown hair; brown eyes
M 914 BC C-M130 A 16223T, 16290T, 16319A, 16362C Hollard 2014
Scotland, UK Cladh Hallan, South Uist (tooth composite skeleton) F 1300-1100 BC U5 C16270T Hanna 2012; Kerri Brown
Scotland, UK Cladh Hallan, South Uist (femur composite skeleton) F 1300-1100 BC T1a C16186T, T16189C Hanna 2012; Kerri Brown
Scotland, UK Cladh Hallan, South Uist (humerus composite skeleton) F 1300-1100 BC H? CRS Hanna 2012; Kerri Brown

Denmark Bredtoftegård [Bt1]
1500-1300 BC

U4 7028T, 12308G, 16179T, 16356 Melchior 2010
Spain Urtiaga, Gipuzkoa [URT-1] 1475-1430 BC H? rCRS in HVRI, 73A, reported as H Hervella 2012
Spain Urtiaga, Gipuzkoa [URT-2] 1475-1430 BC U5a 73G, 16192, 16270 Hervella 2012

Spain Urratxa, Bizkaia
1475-1405 BC

H 2 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999

Spain Urratxa, Bizkaia
1475-1405 BC

J 2 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999

Spain Urratxa, Bizkaia
1475-1405 BC

U 2 samples Izagirre and de la Rúa 1999

Kazakhstan Oi-Zhaylau-III, Talapty-II
1400-1000 BC

T1 16126, 16163, 16186, 16189, 16294 Lalueza-Fox 2004

Kazakhstan Oi-Zhaylau-III, Talapty-II
1400-1000 BC

T1 16093, 16126, 16163, 16186, 16189, 16294 Lalueza-Fox 2004

Kazakhstan Vodokhranilische (Kourgan 4)
1400-1000 BC

HV 16129 Lalueza-Fox 2004

Kazakhstan Vodokhranilische (Kourgan 4)
1400-1000 BC

I 16129, 16223, 16294 Lalueza-Fox 2004

Kazakhstan Vodokhranilische (Kourgan 4)
1400-1000 BC

T* 16126, 16288, 16294, 16296 Lalueza-Fox 2004

Kazakhstan Ak-Mustafa (Kourgan 2)
1400-1000 BC

U5 16187, 16192, 16260, 16270 Lalueza-Fox 2004

Kazakhstan Izmaylovka (Kourgan 7,10)
1400-1000 BC

H CRS Lalueza-Fox 2004

Kazakhstan Izmaylovka (Kourgan 7,10)
1400-1000 BC

U5a1 16192, 16256, 16270, 16311 Lalueza-Fox 2004
Karasuk Russia Oust-Abakansty, kurgan IV, burial 1, Khakassia republic [S18]
Blue or green eyes
F 1400–800 BC

U5a1 16114A, 16256T, 16270T, 16294T Keyser 2009
Karasuk Russia Bogratsky, burial I
Khakassia republic [S19]
Blue or green eyes
F 1400–800 BC

U4* 16356C, 16362C Keyser 2009
Nuragic Italy Carbonia, Sardinia [CA02]
1430 BC

H CRS Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy Carbonia, Sardinia [CA14];
1430 BC

U2 16051G Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy Seulo, Sardinia [SE81, SE 84]
1300 BC

H 2 samples CRS Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy Seulo, Sardinia [SE13]
1300 BC

U2 16051G Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy Seulo, Sardinia [SE01]
1300 BC

H 16126C Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy Seulo, Sardinia [SE02]
1300 BC

J 16069T, 16126C, 16192T Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy Seulo, Sardinia [SE60]
1300 BC

H 16278T Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy S Teresa di Gallura, Sardinia [SR38, ST47]
1300-1200 BC

H 2 samples CRS Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy

S Teresa di Gallura, Sardinia [ST15, ST54]


1300-1200 BC

H or U 2 samples of 16129C Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy S Teresa di Gallura, Sardinia [ST08]
1300-1200 BC

? 16223T Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy S Teresa di Gallura, Sardinia [ST30]
1300-1200 BC

H 16126C Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy S Teresa di Gallura, Sardinia [ST16]
1300-1200 BC

H 16311C Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy Fluminimaggiore, Sardinia [FL04]
1265 BC

H or U 16129C Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Spain Montanissell Cave, Sant Joan de Montanissell, Lleida, Catalonia [E10] 3260 BP U5a1c 16192T; 16256T; 16270T; 16320T; 16399G Simón 2011
Spain Montanissell Cave [E9] F 3240 BP J/J1c 16069T; 16126C Simón 2011
Spain Montanissell Cave [E5] F 3200 BP J/J1c 16069T; 16126C Simón 2011
Spain Montanissell Cave [E2] M 3190 BP U CRS, identified as U on coding region Simón 2011
Spain Montanissell Cave [E7] M 3180 BP J CRS, partial result, identified as J on coding region Simón 2011
Spain Montanissell Cave [E8] F 3180 BP V 16298C Simón 2011
Spain Montanissell Cave [E1] F 3180 BP K 16224C; 16311 Simón 2011
Spain Montanissell Cave [E11] F 3140 BP J/J1c 16069T; 16126C Simón 2011
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave, near Dorste, Lower Saxony [M1, M2, M7] M 1000 BC I2a2b Ii in table 2; Z5REF in Ysearch H 3 samples Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [M3, M6] M 1000 BC I2a2b Iii in table 2 H 2 samples Schilz 2006
Urnfield
Germany Lichtenstein Cave [M14] M 1000 BC I2a2b? Iii? in table 2 H
Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [M4, M5, M19] M 1000 BC I2a2b Iiii in table 2 H 3 samples Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [M8, M16] M 1000 BC I2a2b Ii in table 2; Z5REF in Ysearch U5b 2 samples Schilz 2006
Urnfield
Germany Lichtenstein Cave [M10] M 1000 BC R1a1? Ri in table 2 T2?
Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [M11] M 1000 BC R1a1? Ri? in table 2 U
Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [M9] M 1000 BC R1b Rbi in table 2 H
Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [F1, F12, F13, F19, F20, F21] F 1000 BC

H 6 samples Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [F2, F3, M12, M15] F 1000 BC

J* 4 samples Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [F14] F 1000 BC

J1b1
Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [F5, F6, F10, F16] F 1000 BC

T2 4 samples Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [F9, F18] F 1000 BC

U 2 samples Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [F15] F 1000 BC

U (2?)
Schilz 2006
Urnfield Germany Lichtenstein Cave [F4, F7, F8] F 1000 BC

U5b 3 samples Schilz 2006

Spain Macanet cave, Llucena (Castellon) [1MN1]



H CRS Gamba 2008
Nuragic Italy Perdasdefogu, Sardinia [PE11, PE20, PE23]
930 BC

H 3 samples CRS Caramelli 2007; Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy Perdasdefogu, Sardinia [PE15]
930 BC

V 16129C, 16298C Caramelli 2007 Ghirotto 2010
Nuragic Italy Perdasdefogu, Sardinia [PE25]
930 BC

H? 16223T Caramelli 2007 Ghirotto 2010
Ukraine Verteba Cave [V6] 1,013–544 BC H 14766 Mse I–, 7025 Alu I–, 16070 Nikitin 2011
Ukraine Verteba Cave [F3] 969–418 BC U5a1a 14766 Mse I+, 12308 Hinf I+, 7025 Alu I+, 16256, 16270 Nikitin 2011