Ancient DNA related to traits and diseases

Alleles of -13910 (Gene: MCM6, Chromosome: 2, SNP : rs4988235) in ancient DNA. Each person has two alleles, each either C or T. T is associated with lactase persistence. (For those with 23andMe raw data: A is associated with lactase persistence.)

Economy

Culture

Location

Date

No. studied

C

T

Source

Hunter-gatherer
Loschbour, Luxembourg 6220-5990 BC 1 2 0 Lazaridis 2013
Hunter-gatherer
La Brańa-Arintero, Spain 5940-5690 BC 1 2 0 Olalde 2014
Farming Körös Szarvas, Hungary 5840–5630 BC 3 6 0 Burger 2007
Farming Körös 2 sites, Hungary c. 5700 BC 2 4 0 Gamba 2014
Farming Narva Kretuonas, Lithuania 5580-5350 BC 2 4 0 Burger 2007
Farming LBK Derenburg, Germany 5500–5000 BC 3 6 0 Burger 2007
Farming Cardial Spain 5470-5360 BC 1 2 0 Olalde 2015
Farming LBK Apc-Berekalja I, Hungary 5300-4950 BC 1 2 0 Gamba 2014
Farming ALP 3 sites, Hungary c. 5100 BC 3 6 0 Gamba 2014
Farming LBK Stuttgart-Mühlhausen 5100-4800 BC 1 2 0 Lazaridis 2013
Farming Lengyel Apc-Berekalja I, Hungary 4490-4360 BC 1 2 0 Gamba 2014
Farming Lengyel Osłonki and Konary, Poland 4300-4000 BC 3 6 0 Witas 2015
Farming Ballynahatty, N. Ireland 3343–3020 BC 1 2 0 Cassidy 2015
Pastoralist
Ötztal Alps 3300 BC 1 2 0 Keller 2012
Pastoralists Yamnaya Samara region, Russia 3300-2700 BC 9 18 0 Mathieson 2015
Farming Treilles Treilles, France 3000 BC 26 52 0 Lacan 2011
Farming
San Juan Ante Portam Latinam, Spain 3000 BC 19 28 10 Plantinga 2012
Farming Baden Apc-Berekalja I, Hungary 2900-2700 BC 1 2 0 Gamba 2014
Farming Globular Amphora Kowal, Poland 2850-2570 BC 1 2 0 Kozlowski 2014
Hunter-gatherer Pitted ware Gotland, Sweden 2800-2200 BC 10 19 1 Malmstrom 2010
Farming Early Bronze Terqa, Syria 2650–2450 BC 1 2 0 Witas 2013
Farming
Longar, Spain 2500 BC 7 12 2 Plantinga 2012
Farming Bell Beaker Quedlinburg, Germany 2340-2190 BC 1 0-1 1-2 Mathieson 2015
Pastoralist Early Bronze Glebe, Rathlin Island, N. Ireland 2026-1741 BC 2 2 Cassidy 2015
Hunter-gatherer Zedmar Drestwo, Poland 2267 BC 1 2 0 Burger 2007
Farming Early Bronze Terqa, Syria 2200–1900 BC 1 2 0 Witas 2013
Farming Mako Apc-Berekalja I, Hungary 2190-1980 BC 1 2 0 Gamba 2014
Farming
El Portalón de Cueva Mayor, Spain 1735 BC 8 16 0 Sverrisdóttir 2014
Farming Kyjatice Ludas-Varjudulo, Hungary 1270-1110 BC 1 1 1 Gamba 2014
Farming Urnfield Lichtenstein Cave, Germany 1000 BC 13 19 7 Schilz 2006
Farming Pre-Scythian Mezocsat Ludas-Varjudulo, Hungary 980-830 BC 1 1 1 Gamba 2014
Farming Hallstatt Gzin, Pędzewo and Grodno, Poland 800-600 BC 8 13 3 Witas 2015
Farming Roman Tell Masaikh, Syria 200–300 AD 1 2 0 Witas 2013
Farming Wielbark Linowo and Rogowo, Poland 200–300 AD 31 33 29 Witas 2015
Farming Merovingian Eltville, Germany 400–600 AD 1 1 1 Burger 2007
Farming Roman Tell Masaikh, Syria 500–700 AD 1 2 0 Witas 2013


Csekej, Slovakia 900-1000 AD 1 2 0 Nagy 2011
Pastoralist Magyar Besenyőtelek- Szőrhát, Hungary 900-1000 AD 1 2 0 Nagy 2011
Pastoralist Magyar Eger- Szépasszonyvölgy, Hungary 900-1000 AD 1 2 0 Nagy 2011
Pastoralist Magyar Harta- Freifelt, Hungary 900-1000 AD 3 6 0 Nagy 2011
Pastoralist Magyar Orosháza- Görbics, Hungary 900-1000 AD 1 2 0 Nagy 2011
Pastoralists Magyar Kolozsvár, Romania 900-1000 AD 1 2 0 Nagy 2011
Pastoralist Magyar Sárrétudvar- Hízóföld, Hungary 950 AD 1 2 0 Nagy 2011
Pastoralist Magyar Szabadkígyós- Pálliget, Hungary 950 AD 2 4 0 Nagy 2011

Medieval commoner Magyarhomoróg, Hungary 950 AD 4 5 3 Nagy 2011

Medieval Dalheim, Germany 950– 1200 AD 18 18 18 Kruttli 2014
Pastoralist Magyar Aldebrő-Mocsáros, Hungary 1000 AD 1 2 0 Nagy 2011
Pastoralist Magyar Őrménykút, Hungary 1000 AD 2 4 0 Nagy 2011

Medieval commoner Fadd-Jegeshegy, Hungary 1000 AD 2 4 0 Nagy 2011

Medieval commoner Szegvár-Oromdűlő, Hungary 1000-1250 AD 2 2 2 Nagy 2011

Medieval commoner Zalavár-Kápolna, Hungary 1000-1200 AD 1 2 0 Nagy 2011

Medieval Cedynia and Sródka, Poland 1000-1200 AD 49 76 22 Witas 2015

Medieval royal Birger Magnusson, Sweden d. 1266 1 1 1 Malmstrom 2011

Medieval royal Erik, son of Birger, Sweden d. 1275 1 0 2 Malmstrom 2011

Medieval royal Mechtild of Holstein, Sweden d. 1288 1 0 2 Malmstrom 2011

Medieval Gruczno and Stary Brześć Kujawski-4, Poland 1400 AD 25 21 29 Witas 2015

Distribution of CCR5-D32 (associated with HIV resistance) in historic and prehistoric European populations

Country

Place

Date

No. studied

CCR5-D32

Allele frequency (%)

Source





No/No No/Yes Yes/Yes

Sweden Skateholm 5250-4900 BC


1
Liden 2006
Sweden Visby 3000-2500 BC

3

Liden 2006
Sweden Ire 3028-2141 BC

2 2
Liden 2006
Sweden Rossberger 3506-2143 BC
3 2

Liden 2006
Sweden Hjelmars ror 3350- 2700 BC
5


Liden 2006
Sweden Dragby 2290- 1690 BC
5
1
Liden 2006
Germany Lichtenstein cave 900 BC 17 13 4
11.8 Hummel 2005
Poland Dziekanowice 1000-1200 AD 34 31 3
4.40 Zawicki 2008
Poland Daniłowo 1000-1300 AD 3 3


Zawicki 2008
Poland Stary, Brzesc Kujawski 4 1100-1400 AD 37 34 2 1 5.41 Zawicki 2008
Poland Cedynia 1100-1400 AD 9 8 1

Zawicki 2008
Poland Gdansk 1300-1400 AD 5 5 1

Zawicki 2008
Germany Lubeck: famine mass grave 1316 AD 20 15 5
12.5 Hummel 2005
Germany Lubeck: Black Death mass grave 1350 14 10 4
14.2 Hummel 2005
Germany Goslar 1750–1810 19 12 7
18.4 Hummel 2005
Italy Alia, Sicily 1837 19 18 1
2.6 Hummel 2005


Using alleles predictive of pigmentation to predict phenotype from ancient DNA.

Economy

Culture

Location

Date

Sample

DNA


Skin

Hair

Eyes

Source

gene a = ancestral
d = derived
Hunter-gatherer Palaeolithic Mal'ta, Siberia, Russia 24,000 BP MA-1 SLC24A5 a dark dark brown brown Raghavan 2013
Hunter-gatherer Palaeolithic Grotte du Bichon, Switzerland 13,560–13,770 cal. BP SLC24A5 a (GG) dark Black/Dark brown Jones 2015
Hunter-gatherer Palaeolithic Satsurblia cave, Georgia 13,132–13,380 cal. BP SLC24A5 d (AA) paler Black/Dark brown Jones 2015
Hunter-gatherer Mesolithic Kotias Klde, Georgia 9,529–9,895 cal. BP SLC24A5 d (AA) paler Black/Dark brown Jones 2015
Hunter-gatherer Mesolithic Loschbour, Heffingen, Luxembourg 6220-5990 BC LSB 1 SLC24A5

HERC2

a (2)

d (2)

darker than Neolithic dark brown / black blue Lazaridis 2013
Hunter-gatherer Mesolithic Motala, Sweden 6000 BC MOT 12 SLC24A5

HERC2

d (1)

d (1)

fair?
blue Lazaridis 2013
Hunter-gatherer Mesolithic La Brańa-Arintero, Leon, Spain 5940-5690 BC La Brańa 1 SLC24A5

SLC45A2

a

a

dark dark blue Olalde 2014
Farmer Koros Tiszaszolos-Domahaza, Hungary 5780-5650 BC KO1


dark brown / black blue Gamba 2014
Farmer Koros Berettyoujfalu-Morotva-lige, Hungary 5713-5566 BC KO2


dark brown / light brown brown Gamba 2014
Farmer LBK Stuttgart, Germany 5500 BC
SLC24A5 d (2) lighter than hunter-gatherer dark brown / black brown Lazaridis 2013
Hunter-gatherer Mesolithic Stora Förvar cave, Stora Karlsö Island, Sweden 7500 - 7250 cal. BP SfF11 SLC45A2 d medium?

Skoglund 2014, table S6.
Farmer Cardial Cova Bonica, Vallirana (Barcelona), Spain 5470-5360 BC CB13 SLC24A5
SLC45A2
OCA2/HERC2
d (2)
d (1)
heteroz.
fair dark ? Olalde 2015
Farmer ALP Polgar-Ferenci-hat, Hungary 5310-5070 BC NE1


black / dark brown brown Gamba 2014
Farmer LBK Apc-Berekalja I., Hungary 5300-4950 BC NE6

light dark brown / light brown intermediate Gamba 2014
Farmer ALP Debrecen Tocopart Erdoalja, Hungary 5290-5060 BC NE2


black/dark brown brown Gamba 2014
Farmer Tiszadob-Bukk Polgar-Ferenci-hat, Hungary 5290-5050 BC NE4

light black / dark brown brown Gamba 2014
Farmer Bukk Garadna, Hungary 5210-5010 BC NE3


black / dark brown brown Gamba 2014
Farmer ALP Kompolt-Kigyoser, Hungary 5210-4990 BC NE5


dark brown / light brown brown Gamba 2014
Farmer Lengyel Apc-Berekalja I., Hungary 4490-4360 BC NE7

light light brown / dark blond blue Gamba 2014
Farmer TRB Frälsegĺrden [passage grave], Gokhem, Sweden 3500-2500 BC Gok 2 SLC24A5

SLC45A2

d

d

fair

Skoglund 2014, tables S6, S8, S9
Pastoralist
Ötztal Alps, Italy 3350-3100 BC Ötzi SLC24A5 d fair brown brown Keller 2012
Farmer Baden Apc-Berekalja I., Hungary 2900-2700 BC CO1

light dark brown / light brown brown Gamba 2014
Hunter-gatherer Pitted Ware Ajvide, Eksta, Gotland, Sweden 2800-2000 BC Ajv 58 SLC24A5

SLC45A2

a

a

darker
blue Skoglund 2014
Farmer Mako Kompolt-Kigyoser, Hungary 2190-1980 BC BR1


black / dark brown brown Gamba 2014
Pastoralist Andronovo Tatarka cemetery, burial 64, Charypovsky region, Russia 1800–1400 BC SO7

fair / medium dark brown brown Keyser 2009
Pastoralist Andronovo Tatarka cemetery, burial 55, Russia 1800–1400 BC SO8



brown Keyser 2009
Pastoralist Andronovo Solenoozernaďa IV, kourgane I, burial 3, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia 1800–1400 BC SO9

fair / medium blond / light brown blue / green Keyser 2009
Pastoralist Andronovo Solenoozernaďa IV, kourgane I, burial 4, Russia 1800–1400 BC SO10


brown
Keyser 2009
Pastoralist Andronovo Solenoozernaďa I, burial 4,
Russia
1800–1400 BC SO11



blue / green Keyser 2009
Pastoralist Andronovo Solenoozernaďa I, burial 4
Krasnoyarsk region, Russia
1800–1400 BC SO14

fair / medium brown brown Keyser 2009
Pastoralist Andronovo Solenoozernaďa I, burial 29, Russia 1800–1400 BC SO15



blue / green Keyser 2009
Pastoralist Andronovo Oust-Abakansty, chief kurgan, Khakassia republic, Russia 1800–1400 BC SO16

fair / medium blond / light brown blue / green Keyser 2009
Pastoralist Karasuk Oust-Abakansty, kurgan IV, burial 1, Khakassia republic, Russia 1400–800 BC BC S18



blue / green Keyser 2009
Pastoralist Karasuk Bogratsky, burial I
Khakassia republic, Russia
1400–800 BC BC S19



blue / green Keyser 2009
Farmer Kyjatice Ludas-Varjudulo, Hungary 1270-1110 BC BR2

light dark brown / light brown brown Gamba 2014
Pastoralist Mezocsat Pre-Sythian Ludas-Varjudulo, Hungary 980-830 BC IR1

light light brown / dark blond brown Gamba 2014