Celtic tribes of Southern Scotland and North-East England

Peoples of North Britain 150 AD. Click to enlarge in pop-up window. The Old North. Click to enlarge in pop-up windowAlthough the Antonine Wall was rapidly abandoned by the Romans, the region between it and Hadrian's Wall remained in contact with Roman Britain, importing Roman goods and ideas. Christianity was widespread across it by the end of the 5th century. The Cumbric form of British was spoken as far north as Dumbarton (Dn Breatainn, fort of the Britons), which Bede knew to be a British stronghold, known in his day as Alcluith (Alt Clud). This may explain why Bede considered that the dividing line between Britons and Picts was the Antonine Wall.1J. E. Fraser, From Caledonia to Pictland: Scotland to 795 (2009), pp. 37, 88-90; Bede, The Ecclesiastical History of the British People, ed. J. McClure and R. Collins (1994), p. 12.

Notes

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  1. J. E. Fraser, From Caledonia to Pictland: Scotland to 795 (2009), pp. 37, 88-90; Bede, The Ecclesiastical History of the British People, ed. J. McClure and R. Collins (1994), p. 12.
  2. B. Collingwood and R.P. Wright (eds.), The Roman Inscriptions of Britain (1965), no. 1142.
  3. J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (2006), pp. 269, 282.
  4. Claudius Ptolemy, The Geography, II.2; A.L.F. Rivet and C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain (1979); P. De Bernardo Stempel, Linguistically Celtic ethnonyms: towards a classification, Celtic and Other Languages in Ancient Europe, J. L. Garca Alonso (ed.), 101-118 (2008), 106; C. Marx, Rectification of the ancient geographic coordinates in Ptolemy's Geographike Hyphegesis, Survey Review, vol. 46, no. 337 (July 2014), pp. 231-244.
  5. J. E. Fraser, From Caledonia to Pictland: Scotland to 795 (2009), pp.16-19, 89-90; Tacitus, Agricola, 23.
  6. T. Clarkson, Strathclyde and the Anglo-Saxons in the Viking Age (2014).
  7. E. B. Rennie, A possible boundary between Dl Riata and Pictland, Pictish Arts Society Journal, 10 (Winter 1996), pp. 17-22; E. B. Rennie, Clach nam Breaton (Killin parish), mound, Discovery and Excavation in Scotland, 1996 (1997), p. 102.
  8. Claudius Ptolemy, The Geography, II.2; J. T. Koch, An Atlas for Celtic Studies (2007), maps 15.3, 21.3; A.L.F. Rivet and C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain (1979); J. T. Koch, The Gododdin of Aneirin: text and context from Dark-Age North Britain (1997), pp. lxxxii-lxx.
  9. Claudius Ptolemy, The Geography, II.2; A.L.F. Rivet and C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain (1979); C. Marx, Rectification of position data of Scotland in Ptolemy’s Geographike Hyphegesis, Survey Review, vol 46, no. 337 (July 2014), pp. 231-244; J. T. Koch, An Atlas for Celtic Studies (2007), maps 15.2, 15.3.
  10. Claudius Ptolemy, The Geography, II.2; T. Codrington, The Roman Roads in Britain (1903), introduction; A. L. F. Rivet and C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain (1979), pp. 320, 508-9..
  11. J. T. Koch, An Atlas for Celtic Studies (2007), p. 112 and map 15.2; S. Carter and F. Hunter, An Iron Age chariot burial from Scotland, Antiquity, vol. 77, no. 297 (September 203), pp. 531-535.
  12. J.T. Koch, Celtic Culture: a historical encyclopedia (2006), pp. 823-6; A. O. H. Jarman (ed.), Y Gododdin. Britain's Oldest Heroic Poem (1988)