Palaeolithic DNA from Eurasia

Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups extracted from the earliest prehistoric human remains in Europe and related remains in Asia, arranged chronologically. cal BP = calibrated date before present, where present = 1950 CE/AD. For haplogroup nomenclature and aDNA issues see Introduction to ancient DNA.

Culture

Country

Site and/or Individual

Sex

Date

Genome

Y-DNA

mtDNA

Source



pigmentation from genes
usually approximate number of SNPs Haplogroup Additional information Haplogroup Additional information
Russia Ust'-Ishim, western Siberia M 47,480-42,560 cal BP 2,137,615 K(xLT), renamed K2 M526 R* 73G, 263G, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 3107d, 4769G, 7028T, 8860G, 11719A, 14766T, 15326G, 16150 Fu 2014; Fu 2016
Romania Peştera cu Oase [Oase 1] M 41,640-37,580 cal BP 285,076 F N 73G, 263G, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 3107d, 4769G, 7028T, 8860G, 11719A, 12705T, 14766T, 15326G, 16223T Fu 2015; Fu 2016
Proto-Aurignacian Italy Grotta di Fumane [Fumane 2] 41,110-38,500 cal BP R* 73G, 263G, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 4769G, 7028T, 8860G, 11719A, 14766T, 15326G. 5585A, 16129A and 16304C Benazzi 2015

Russia Kostenki 14 - Markina Gora,Voronezh region [Kostenki 14] M 38,680-36,260 cal BP 1,774,156 C1b
M130, P255, V183, V199, V232, F3393, F1370
U2 11467, 12308, 12372, 1811, 16051 Seguin-Orlando 2014; Fu 2013; Krause 2010; Fu 2016
Aurignacian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q116-1] M 35,160-34,430 cal BP 846,938 C1a M130, V232, F3393, CTS11043 M G207A, C1556T, C6045T, C8619a, A11084G, T16297C Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci [PA133 (23C-2)] M 34,580-31,2010 cal BP 82,330 I CTS674+, CTS9269+, FGC2416- , CTS8300-, PF3815-, L80- , M253-, L81-, M307.2- , FGC2416, CTS8300-, PF3815- U8c C16519T, (6N, 11N) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Aurignacian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet 376-3] 33,940-33,140 cal BP M G207A, C1556T, A6040G, C6041T, C6045T, C8619a, A11084G, T16297C Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Romania Peştera Muierilor [Muierii2] F 33,760-32,840 cal BP 98,618 U6 Hervella 2016; Fu 2016
Romania Peştera Cioclovina Uscată [Cioclovina1] M 33,090-31,780 cal BP 12,784 CT M5756 U T15889C, C16519T, (G12372A) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Russia Kostenki 12 - Volkovskaya, Voronezh region [Kostenki 12] M 32,990-31,840 cal BP 61,228 CT M5609, M5611, M5692, M5712, M5737, CTS9948 U2 Fu 2016
Gravettian Austria Krems-Wachtberg [Krems-WA 3] M 31,250-30,690 cal BP 203,986 U5 Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Pavlov [Pavlov 1] M 31,110-29,410 cal BP 57,005 IJK L16, CTS4517, FGC2414 U5 Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Dolni Vestonice [13] M 31,070-30,670 cal BP 139,568 CT (notIJK) CTS109, CTS5318, CTS6327, CTS8243, CTS9556, Z17718, Y1571, M5831, (P126-, L16-) U8c 151, 3480, 7031, 10398, 16189 Fu 2013; Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Dolni Vestonice [15] M 31,070-30,670 cal BP 30,900 BT PF1178 U5 16192, 16270, Fu 2013; Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Dolni Vestonice [14] M 31,070-30,670 cal BP 5,677 U5 16192, 16270 Fu 2013; Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Dolní Vĕstonice [DV 16] M 30,710-29,310 cal BP 945,292 C1a2 CTS11043, V20, V86 (F1370-) U5 G1462A, C16519T, (4N, 6N) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Dolní Vĕstonice [DV 43] M 30,710-29,310 cal BP 163,946 F P145, P158, PF3641,

FI4, CTS2193, CTS4848,

CTS8963, CTS11540

U T16231C, C16519T Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Russia Sunghir

[S2 and S3]

M & F 30,100 ± 550 BP

Unreliable Two samples 16129A reported in same grave. Contamination suspected. Even if genuine, this mutation is found in multiple haplogroups and so is uninformative in isolation. Alexeeva 2000; Ovchinnikov and Goodwin 2003 ; Maram 2012 for date
Gravettian Italy The Grotta di Santa Maria di Agnano, Ostuni [Ostuni2] F 29,310-28,640 cal BP 17,017 U2 Fu 2016
Gravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci [PA108 (21B-1)] F 28,430-27,070 cal BP 4,330 U2'3'4'7'8'9 G1709A, G6260A, T9716C, C16256T, C16519T (C14766T) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q53-1] F 28,230-27,720 cal BP 12,567 U2 C152T!!, T217C, T5426C, G12406A, A12579G, 16129G, T16189C!, (1N) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci, Foggia [23]
28,000 BP

Unreliable Contaminated. Caramelli 2008; Fu 2013, supplementary table S6. See PA133 below)
Gravettian Italy The Grotta di Santa Maria di Agnano, Ostuni [Ostuni1] F 27,810-27,430 cal BP 369,313 M Fu 2016
Gravettian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q55-2] 27,730-27,310 cal BP U2 C152T!!, T217C, C4011T, C4013T, T5426C, G12406A, A12579G, T16092C,

G16129c, T16189C!, (T16092C)

Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q376-19] F 27,720-27,310 cal BP 25,400 U2 C152T!!, T217C, T5426C, G12406A, A12579G, T16092C, G16129c, T16189C! Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian France La Rochette (saint Léon-sur-Vézère) 27,780-27,400 cal BP M G207A, C1556T, C6045T, C6164T, C8619a, A11084G, C12816T, (525insAC,

16297N)

Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet 2878-21] 27,060-26,270 cal BP U5 T3202C, C3612T, C13272T, A13299G, T16192C!, C16519T Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q56-16] F 26,600-26,040 cal BP 9,988 U2 C152T!!, T217C, T5426C, G16129c, T16189C!, T16362C Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Wales, UK Paviland [Red Lady] M 26,000 BP

Unreliable CRS; Cloning not used; contamination highly likely. Sykes 2000
Gravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci [12]
24,000 BP
Unreliable Contaminated. Caramelli 2003; Bandelt 2005; Fu 2013, supplementary table S6.
Gravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci [25]
24,000 BP
Unreliable Contaminated. Caramelli 2003; Fu 2013, supplementary table S6.
Russia Mal'ta, Siberia [MA-1]
Brown eyes; dark brown hair; dark skin
M 24,520-24,090 cal BP 1,439,501 R* U* C324T, T482C, T3540C, T8258C, A10289G, A11467G, A12308G, G12372A, A13350G, G14364A, A14776G, A16399G Raghavan 2013; Fu 2016
Epigravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci [PA71 (8A)] 19,250-18,210 cal BP U5b2b C6910T, C16519T, (11N, 4467N, 5213N, 5844N, 7396N, 15050N, 16313N) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian Spain El Mirón Cave, Cantabria [Red Lady of El Mirón; ElMiron] F 18,830-18,610 cal BP 797,714 U5b Fu 2016
Solutrian Spain Nerja, Málaga [NE-NM 82.2]
18,000-15,000 BC

Unreliable 16126C, 16311Y Fernández 2005
Solutrian Spain Nerja, Málaga [NE-NT 79]
18,000-15,000 BC

U 16192T 16311C Fernández 2005
Magdalenian Russia Afontova Gora [Afontova Gora 3] F 16,930-16,490 cal BP 286,355 R1b Fu 2016
Russia Afontova Gora [Afontova Gora 2] M 16,930-16,490 cal BP 143,751 Fu 2016
Magdalenian Germany Hohle Fels [49 (Ib1 66), 10 (Ic 405)] M 16,000-14,260 cal BP 63,151 I
CTS674, CTS9269
U8a 2 samples C150T, G1422A, C16519T, C9365T missing Bramanti 2009; Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian France Rigney [1] F 15,690-15,240 cal BP 35,600 U2'3'4'7'8'9 C150T, T152C!, T6152C, T5999C, T10020C, A12082G, A12530G, G15466A,

T16297C

Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q 2] M 15,230-14,780 cal BP 72,263 HIJK F929+, PF3837+ U8a C150T, G1422A, C16519T, C9365T missing Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian Germany Brillenhohle M 15,120-14,440 cal BP 13,459 U8a G1422A, C16519T, C9365T missing, (C14519N, 10107N, 14493N) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian Germany Burkhardtshöhle M 15,080-14,150 cal BP 38,376 I CTS5650+ U8a C150T, G1422A, C16519T, C9365T missing, (A7055G) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian Germany Hohle Fels [79] M 15,070-14,270 cal BP 11,211 U8a C150T, G1422A, C16519T, C9365T missing Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Epigravettian Italy Villabruna, Sovramonte – Belluno, Veneto M 14,180-13,780 cal BP 1,215,433 R1b1 [R1b1a with additional SNPs] P224, M734, P285, P227, P294, P242, P238, P245, M173, P286, P236, M306, L278. [Derived for additional SNPs L754/PF6269/YSC0000022+, A702/Z8137+, CTS4244/PF6257/YSC0001279/V2997+, CTS7585+, C41/M12190/SK2062/V1501/Z8135/Y108+, L1345/PF6266/YSC0000224+, L761/PF6258/YSC0000266+, L774/PF6245/YSC0000277+, PF6263+, PF6271+ which make it R1b1a on current ISOGG tree] U5b2b 16261, 16274 Di Benedetto 2000; Fu 2016; Additional info on Y-SNA SNPs from Sergey Malyshev
Azalian Switzerland Grotte du Bichon M 13,770-13,560 cal BP 2,116,782 I2 U5b1h Mutations with respect to the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence: 146T, 150T, 152T, 195T, 247G, [384G not found], 769G, 825T, 1018G, 2758G, 2885T, 3197C, 3594C, 4104A, 4312C, [5656G non found], 7028C, 7146A, 7256C, [7521G not found], 7768G, 8468C, 8655C, 8701A, 9477A, 9540T, 10398A, 10664C, 10688G, 10810T, 10873T, 10915T, 11467G, 11914G, 12308G, 12372A, 12705C, 13105A, 13276A, 13506C, 13617C, 13650C, 14182C, 16129G, 16187C, 16223C, 16230A, 16270T, 16278C, 16311T, 16519T Jones 2015; Fu 2016
Epigravettian Georgia Satsurblia cave M 13,380-13,130 cal BP 1,460,368 J1 Low coverage. L255+, CTS426/PF4641/YSC307+, CTS10759+, CTS11188/PF4784+, CTS11636/PF4785+, CTS6101/PF3543+, F4306+, FGC20301/Y6337/ZS3624+, FGC20303/Y6336/ZS3620+, CTS3219/ZS80-. K3 Mutations reported here are with respect to the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence: 146T, 150T, 152T, [235G not found], 247G, 560T, 769G, 825T, 1018G, 1097T, 1811G, 2758G, 2885T, 3480G, 3594C, 4104A, 4312C, 4769A, 6027T, 7146A, 7256C, 7498A, 7521G, 7657C, [8188G not found], 8468C, 8655C, 8701A, 9055A, 9540T, 9698C, [9852T not found], 10398A, 10550G, 10664C, 10688G, 10810T, 10873T, 10915T, 11299C, 11467G, 11914G, 12308G, 12372A, 12705C, 13105A, 13276A, 13506C, 13650C, 14167T, 14198A, 14212C, 14798C, 15924G, [16093C not found], 16129G, 16148T, [16153A not found], 16187C, 16189T, 16223C, 16224C, 16230A, 16278C Jones 2015; Fu 2016; Additional info on Y-SNA SNPs from Chris Rоttеnѕtеіnеr
Epipaleolithic France Rochedane (Villars-sous-Dampjoux) M 13,090-12,830 cal BP 237,390 I PF3641, CTS4088, CTS7593, CTS8420, CTS10058, PF3800, PF3803, L68 U5b2b A8449G, T16086C, C16519T, (525insAC) Posth 2016Fu 2016
Italy Grotta Paglicci [Accesso sala 2 Rim P] 13,000 - 9000 BC U2'3'4'7'8'9 146, 150, 152, 5999, 6152, 6498C>A, 8860, 10020, 14152, 15326, 15466, 16274, 16297 Fu 2013
Magdalenian Spain Erralla (Gipuzkoa) [ERR-1]
12,300 BP

U5b 73G, 16270 Hervella 2012; Brandt 2013
Epipaleolithic France Aven des Iboussières, Malataverne [IBS-9 (39)] M 12,040-11,410 cal BP 9,659 U5b2b 6027A, 8161T, T8167C, T13356C, C16519T Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Germany Oberkassel [998] 12,000 BC U5b1 16192! Fu 2013
Germany Oberkassel [998, 999] 11,400 BC U5b1 16189, 16166 Fu 2013
Magdalenian Spain El Pirulejo [1P1]
11,500-10,500 BC

? 16182C, 16183C, 16189C Fernández 2005
Magdalenian Spain El Pirulejo [2P1]
11,500-10,500 BC

Unreliable CRS Fernández 2005
Magdalenian Spain La Pasiega (Cantabria) [PS-1]


R0 or HV rCRS in HVRI, G73A, reported as H Hervella 2012
Epipaleolithic France Aven des Iboussières, Malataverne [IBS-6 (25-1)] 10,140±50 BP U5b2a A4732G, C16114a, C16519T Posth 2016
Epipaleolithic France Aven des Iboussières, Malataverne [IBS-8 (31-2)] 10,140±50 BP U5b1 12398T, G13708A, C16519T, (6N, 11N, 16192.1T) Posth 2016