Palaeolithic DNA from Eurasia

Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups extracted from the earliest prehistoric human remains in Europe and related remains in Asia, arranged chronologically. cal BP = calibrated date before present, where present = 1950 CE/AD. For haplogroup nomenclature and aDNA issues see Introduction to ancient DNA.

Culture

Country

Site and/or Individual

Sex

Date

Genome

Y-DNA

mtDNA

Source



pigmentation from genes
usually approximate number of SNPs Haplogroup Additional information Haplogroup Additional information
Russia Ust'-Ishim, western Siberia M 45530-40610 calBCE

2137615 K2a M526. Initially reported as K(xLT), renamed K2; Derived M2308 (GRCh37 Y: 7,690,182 bp) found by Posnik, shared with NO: new clade created - K2a (Poznik supp. fig. 15.) R* 73G, 263G, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 3107d, 4769G, 7028T, 8860G, 11719A, 14766T, 15326G, 16150 Fu 2014; Fu 2016; Posnik 2016; Lazaridis 2017
Romania Peştera cu Oase [Oase 1] M 41640-37580 cal BP 285076 K2a Initially reported as F; Derived M2308 (GRCh37 Y: 7,690,182 bp) found by Posnik, shared with NO: new clade created - K2a (Poznik supp. fig. 15.) N 73G, 263G, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 3107d, 4769G, 7028T, 8860G, 11719A, 12705T, 14766T, 15326G, 16223T Fu 2015; Fu 2016; Posnik 2016
Proto-Aurignacian Italy Grotta di Fumane [Fumane 2] 41110-38,500 cal BP R* 73G, 263G, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 4769G, 7028T, 8860G, 11719A, 14766T, 15326G. 5585A, 16129A and 16304C Benazzi 2015

Russia Kostenki 14 - Markina Gora,Voronezh region [Kostenki 14] M 38680-36260 cal BP 1774156 C1b
C1b:F1370:8643365G->C; C1:CTS6773:17100606C->T; C1:F3393:23023974C->A; C1:K29:6630453G->T; C1:K35:14075931G->C; C:CTS179:2789035G->A; C:CTS182:2790145C->G; etc. U2 11467, 12308, 12372, 1811, 16051 Seguin-Orlando 2014; Fu 2013; Krause 2010; Fu 2016; Mathieson 2017
Gravettian Russia Sunghir [S2 / SII] M 35283-33185 BP C1a2

U2 Sikora 2017
Aurignacian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q116-1] M 35160-34430 cal BP 846938 C1a M130, V232, F3393, CTS11043 M G207A, C1556T, C6045T, C8619a, A11084G, T16297C Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Russia Sunghir [S3 / SIII] M 35154-33031 BP C1a2

U2 Sikora 2017
Gravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci [PA133 (23C-2)] M 34580-312010 cal BP 82330 I CTS674+, CTS9269+, FGC2416- , CTS8300-, PF3815-, L80- , M253-, L81-, M307.2- , FGC2416, CTS8300-, PF3815- U8c C16519T, (6N, 11N) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Russia Sunghir [S4 / SIV] M 34485-33499 BP C1a2

U2 Sikora 2017
Aurignacian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet 376-3] 33940-33140 cal BP M G207A, C1556T, A6040G, C6041T, C6045T, C8619a, A11084G, T16297C Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Russia Sunghir [S1 / SI] M 33875-31770 BP C1a2

U8c Sikora 2017
Romania Peştera Muierilor [Muierii2] F 33760-32840 cal BP 98618 U6 Hervella 2016; Fu 2016
Romania Peştera Cioclovina Uscată [Cioclovina1] M 33090-31780 cal BP 12784 CT M5756 U T15889C, C16519T, (G12372A) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Russia Kostenki 12 - Volkovskaya, Voronezh region [Kostenki 12] M 32990-31840 cal BP 61228 CT M5609, M5611, M5692, M5712, M5737, CTS9948 U2 Fu 2016
Gravettian Austria Krems-Wachtberg [Krems-WA 3] M 31250-30690 cal BP 203,986 U5 Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Pavlov [Pavlov 1] M 31110-29410 cal BP 57005 IJK L16, CTS4517, FGC2414 U5 Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Dolni Vestonice [13] M 31070-30670 cal BP 139568 CT (notIJK) CTS109, CTS5318, CTS6327, CTS8243, CTS9556, Z17718, Y1571, M5831, (P126-, L16-) U8c 151, 3480, 7031, 10398, 16189 Fu 2013; Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Dolni Vestonice [15] M 31070-30670 cal BP 30900 BT PF1178 U5 16192, 16270, Fu 2013; Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Dolni Vestonice [14] M 31070-30670 cal BP 5677 U5 16192, 16270 Fu 2013; Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Dolní Vĕstonice [DV 16] M 30710-29310 cal BP 945292 C1a2 CTS11043, V20, V86 (F1370-) U5 G1462A, C16519T, (4N, 6N) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Czech Republic Dolní Vĕstonice [DV 43] M 30710-29310 cal BP 163946 F P145, P158, PF3641,

FI4, CTS2193, CTS4848,

CTS8963, CTS11540

U T16231C, C16519T Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Italy The Grotta di Santa Maria di Agnano, Ostuni [Ostuni2] F 29310-28640 cal BP 17017 U2 Fu 2016
Gravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci [PA108 (21B-1)] F 28430-27070 cal BP 4330 U2'3'4'7'8'9 G1709A, G6260A, T9716C, C16256T, C16519T (C14766T) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q53-1] F 28230-27720 cal BP 12567 U2 C152T!!, T217C, T5426C, G12406A, A12579G, 16129G, T16189C!, (1N) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci, Foggia [23]
28000 BP

Unreliable Contaminated. Caramelli 2008; Fu 2013, supplementary table S6. See PA133 below)
Gravettian Italy The Grotta di Santa Maria di Agnano, Ostuni [Ostuni1] F 27810-27430 cal BP 369313 M Fu 2016
Gravettian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q55-2] 27730-27310 cal BP U2 C152T!!, T217C, C4011T, C4013T, T5426C, G12406A, A12579G, T16092C,

G16129c, T16189C!, (T16092C)

Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q376-19] F 27720-27310 cal BP 25400 U2 C152T!!, T217C, T5426C, G12406A, A12579G, T16092C, G16129c, T16189C! Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian France La Rochette (saint Léon-sur-Vézère) 27780-27400 cal BP M G207A, C1556T, C6045T, C6164T, C8619a, A11084G, C12816T, (525insAC,

16297N)

Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet 2878-21] 27060-26270 cal BP U5 T3202C, C3612T, C13272T, A13299G, T16192C!, C16519T Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q56-16] F 26600-26040 cal BP 9988 U2 C152T!!, T217C, T5426C, G16129c, T16189C!, T16362C Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Gravettian Wales, UK Paviland [Red Lady] M 26000 BP

Unreliable CRS; Cloning not used; contamination highly likely. Sykes 2000
Gravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci [12]
24000 BP
Unreliable Contaminated. Caramelli 2003; Bandelt 2005; Fu 2013, supplementary table S6.
Gravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci [25]
24000 BP
Unreliable Contaminated. Caramelli 2003; Fu 2013, supplementary table S6.
Russia Mal'ta, Siberia [MA-1]
Brown eyes; dark brown hair; dark skin
M 24520-24,090 cal BP 1439501 R* U* C324T, T482C, T3540C, T8258C, A10289G, A11467G, A12308G, G12372A, A13350G, G14364A, A14776G, A16399G Raghavan 2013; Fu 2016
Epigravettian Italy Grotta Paglicci [PA71 (8A)] 19250-18210 cal BP U5b2b C6910T, C16519T, (11N, 4467N, 5213N, 5844N, 7396N, 15050N, 16313N) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian Spain El Mirón Cave, Cantabria [Red Lady of El Mirón; ElMiron] F 18830-18610 cal BP 797714 U5b Fu 2016
Solutrian Spain Nerja, Málaga [NE-NM 82.2]
18000-15000 BC

Unreliable 16126C, 16311Y Fernández 2005
Solutrian Spain Nerja, Málaga [NE-NT 79]
18000-15000 BC

U 16192T 16311C Fernández 2005
Magdalenian Russia Afontova Gora [Afontova Gora 3] F 16480-15480 calBCE 286355 R1b Fu 2016; Mathieson 2017 new date.
Russia Afontova Gora [Afontova Gora 2] M 16930-16490 cal BP 143751 Q-F746 Fu 2016; Y-DNA haplogroup from Y-Full
Magdalenian Germany Hohle Fels [49 (Ib1 66), 10 (Ic 405)] M 16000-14260 cal BP 63151 I
CTS674, CTS9269
U8a 2 samples C150T, G1422A, C16519T, C9365T missing Bramanti 2009; Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian France Rigney [1] F 15690-15240 cal BP 35600 U2'3'4'7'8'9 C150T, T152C!, T6152C, T5999C, T10020C, A12082G, A12530G, G15466A,

T16297C

Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian Belgium Troisième caverne (Goyet) [Goyet Q 2] M 15230-14780 cal BP 72263 HIJK F929+, PF3837+ U8a C150T, G1422A, C16519T, C9365T missing Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian Germany Brillenhohle M 15120-14440 cal BP 13459 U8a G1422A, C16519T, C9365T missing, (C14519N, 10107N, 14493N) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian Germany Burkhardtshöhle M 15080-14150 cal BP 38376 I CTS5650+ U8a C150T, G1422A, C16519T, C9365T missing, (A7055G) Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Magdalenian Germany Hohle Fels [79] M 15070-14270 cal BP 11211 U8a C150T, G1422A, C16519T, C9365T missing Posth 2016; Fu 2016
Azalian Switzerland Grotte du Bichon M 13770-13560 cal BP 2116782 I2 U5b1h Mutations with respect to the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence: 146T, 150T, 152T, 195T, 247G, [384G not found], 769G, 825T, 1018G, 2758G, 2885T, 3197C, 3594C, 4104A, 4312C, [5656G non found], 7028C, 7146A, 7256C, [7521G not found], 7768G, 8468C, 8655C, 8701A, 9477A, 9540T, 10398A, 10664C, 10688G, 10810T, 10873T, 10915T, 11467G, 11914G, 12308G, 12372A, 12705C, 13105A, 13276A, 13506C, 13617C, 13650C, 14182C, 16129G, 16187C, 16223C, 16230A, 16270T, 16278C, 16311T, 16519T Jones 2015; Fu 2016
Italy Grotta Paglicci [Accesso sala 2 Rim P] 13000 - 9000 BC U2'3'4'7'8'9 146, 150, 152, 5999, 6152, 6498C>A, 8860, 10020, 14152, 15326, 15466, 16274, 16297 Fu 2013
Magdalenian Spain Erralla (Gipuzkoa) [ERR-1]
12300 BP

U5b 73G, 16270 Hervella 2012; Brandt 2013
Epigravettian Italy Villabruna, Sovramonte – Belluno, Veneto M 12230-11830 calBCE (12140±70 BP)

1215433 R1b1a R1b1a:A702:10038192G->A; R1b1a:CTS4244:15510064T->G; R1b1a:CTS7585:17545608G->T; R1b1a:FGC41:7900883C->A; R1b1a:L754:22889018G->A; R1b1a:L761:16773870A->G; R1b1a:L1345:21558298G->T; R1b1a:PF6263:21159055C->A; R1b1a:PF6271:23984056G->A; R1b1:CTS46:2686555G->A; R1b1:CTS2134:14193384G->A; R1b1:CTS2229:14226692T->A; R1b1:L278:18914441C->T; R1b1:L1349:22722580T->C; R1b1:M415:9170545C->A; R1b:M343:2887824C->A; R1:CTS2565:14366723C->T; R:F370:16856357T->C; R:F652:23631629C->A; etc. U5b2b 16261, 16274 Di Benedetto 2000; Fu 2016; Mathieson 2017
Late Epigravettian Italy Grotta d’Oriente, Favignana island, Sicily, [I2158 / SIC2, Oriente C] F 12000 BCE

61547 U2'3'4'7'8'9 Mathieson 2017
Germany Oberkassel [998] 12000 BC U5b1 16192! Fu 2013
Epigravettian Georgia Satsurblia cave M 11430-11180 calBCE

1460368 J1 Low coverage. L255+, CTS426/PF4641/YSC307+, CTS10759+, CTS11188/PF4784+, CTS11636/PF4785+, CTS6101/PF3543+, F4306+, FGC20301/Y6337/ZS3624+, FGC20303/Y6336/ZS3620+, CTS3219/ZS80-. K3 Mutations reported here are with respect to the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence: 146T, 150T, 152T, [235G not found], 247G, 560T, 769G, 825T, 1018G, 1097T, 1811G, 2758G, 2885T, 3480G, 3594C, 4104A, 4312C, 4769A, 6027T, 7146A, 7256C, 7498A, 7521G, 7657C, [8188G not found], 8468C, 8655C, 8701A, 9055A, 9540T, 9698C, [9852T not found], 10398A, 10550G, 10664C, 10688G, 10810T, 10873T, 10915T, 11299C, 11467G, 11914G, 12308G, 12372A, 12705C, 13105A, 13276A, 13506C, 13650C, 14167T, 14198A, 14212C, 14798C, 15924G, [16093C not found], 16129G, 16148T, [16153A not found], 16187C, 16189T, 16223C, 16224C, 16230A, 16278C Jones 2015; Fu 2016; Lazaridis 2016; Additional info on Y-SNA SNPs from Chris Rоttеnѕtеіnеr
Epipaleolithic France Rochedane, Villars-sous-Dampjoux

M 11140-10880 calBCE 145462 I I:CTS4088:15389836T->C; I:CTS7593:17548890G->A; I:CTS8420:18018313C->A; I:CTS10058:19233673A->G; I:PF3661:8484606C->A; I:PF3800:21402723A->G; I:PF3803:21452125A->G; U5b2b A8449G, T16086C, C16519T, (525insAC) Posth 2016Fu 2016; Mathieson 2017
Germany Oberkassel [998, 999] 11400 BC U5b1 16189, 16166 Fu 2013
Magdalenian Spain El Pirulejo [1P1]
11500-10500 BC

? 16182C, 16183C, 16189C Fernández 2005
Magdalenian Spain El Pirulejo [2P1]
11500-10500 BC

Unreliable CRS Fernández 2005
Magdalenian Spain La Pasiega (Cantabria) [PS-1]


R0 or HV rCRS in HVRI, G73A, reported as H Hervella 2012
Epipaleolithic France Aven des Iboussières, Malataverne [IBS-9 (39)] M 10090-9460 BCE 9659 U5b2b 6027A, 8161T, T8167C, T13356C, C16519T Posth 2016; Fu 2016; Mathieson 2017
Epipaleolithic France Aven des Iboussières, Malataverne [IBS-6 (25-1)] M 10090-9460 BCE (based on a direct date of Iboussieres 39)

77062

J?

J:P209:19179335T->C; IJ:P126:21225770C->G U5b2a A4732G, C16114a, C16519T Posth 2016; Mathieson 2017
Epipaleolithic France Aven des Iboussières, Malataverne [IBS-8 (31-2)] M 10090-9460 BCE (based on a direct date of Iboussieres 39) 80100 R R:F356:16629782T->C; U5b1 12398T, G13708A, C16519T, (6N, 11N, 16192.1T) Posth 2016; Mathieson 2017