Royal DNA of Europe

Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups extracted from historic human remains in Europe, or calculated from descendants, arranged chronologically. For haplogroup nomenclature and aDNA issues see Introduction to ancient DNA

Royal house




Date of death




Estridsen Denmark Sven II Estridsen, King of Denmark M d. 1074 AD H 7028C Dissing 2007
Denmark Margrethe, alias Estrid, Queen of Denmark

(?Margareta Hasbjörnsdatter, spouse of King Harald III?)

F 11th-century H5a2 16093C, 16304C, reported as H5a Dissing 2007
Sweden Birger Magnusson M 1266 I1 M253 H CRS Malmstrom 2011
Sweden Erik, son of Birger M 1275 I1 M253 Z1a 16129A, 16185T, 16223T, 16224C, 16260T, 16298C Malmstrom 2011

Sweden Mechtild of Holstein F 1288

U5b1 16189C, 16270T Malmstrom 2011
York England Richard III M 1485 G2 P287; Differs from that of three male line descendants of Edward III via John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort (1744–1803), which are U152 xL2,Z36,Z56,M126,M160,Z192. Infidelity must therefore have taken place somewhere on either the York or Lancester lines. J1c2c 73G, 146C, 185A, 188G, 263G, 295T, 315.1C, 16069T, 16126C, Ehrenberg 2013; King 2014
Bourbon France Henry IV (from 3 known male-line descendants) M 1610 R1b1b2a1a1b U106, Z381 Larmuseau 2013
Bourbon France Henry IV (from head thought to be his) M 1610 Partial Y-STR profile matching that thought to be Louis XVI (below), but the latter is now discredited U5b* 16239T 16270T 16311C Charlier 2012
Mukhrani Kakheti [Georgia] Ketevan F 1624 U1b Rai 2013
Bourbon France Louis XVI (from blood presumed to be his, but see details) M 1793 [G2a] M52A, M216G, M174A, M181T, M201T, M91A, M96G, M214A; Does not match that of Bourboun descendants, and genome does not match the appearance of Louis XVI N1b 73G, 151T, 152C, 189G, 194T, 195C, 263G, 315.1C, 16093C, 16145A, 16176(G), 16223T Lalueza-Fox 2010; Larmuseau 2013; Olalde 2014
Bonaparte France Napoleon Bonaparte M 1821 E1b1b1b2a1d M123, M34, L791, L792 16184T Lucotte 2011; Lucotte 2013
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha UK Victoria, as deduced from living descendants in the female line and the remains of the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna and her children F 1901

H 263G, 315.1C, 524.1A,524.2C,750G, 1438G, 3010A, 4137T, 4769G, 8860G, 15326G, 16111T, 16357C, 16519C Rogaev 2009; Coble 2009
Romanov Russia Nicholas II M 1918 R1b
T* 16126C, 16169Y*, 16294T, 16296T, 73G, 263G, 315.1C

* Y= heteroplasmy

Rogaev 2009; Coble 2009