Ancient DNA from the Silk Road

Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups extracted from historic human remains mainly in Xinjiang provice in Western China in prehistoric and historic periods. Xinjiang was a key node on the the Silk Road, a popular name for the collection of ancient trade routes that for several millennia linked China to the Mediterranean. For haplogroup nomenclature and aDNA issues see Introduction to ancient DNA

Culture

Country

Site and Individual

Sex

Date

Y-DNA

mtDNA

Source

pigmentation surviving usually approximate Haplogroup Additional information Haplogroup Additional information
Tocharian? China Urumchi, Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Autonomous Region
2000 BC

Unreliable 16298T
Francalacci 1995
Tocharian? China Xiaohe (Small River) Cemetery, Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Autonomous Region [100, 102] F 2515 ± 43 BC

C4 2 samples 16298C, 16327T Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [106] M 2515 ± 43 BC R1a1a M89+, M9+, M45+, M173+, M198+ (Z93-) C4 16298C, 16327T Li 2010 (and answer to comments)
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [107]
Nut-brown hair
F 2515 ± 43 BC

C4 16223, 16298C 16309, 16327T Li 2010
Tocharian?

China

Xiaohe, Xinjiang [109]
Light brown hair
F 2515 ± 43 BC

C4 16298C, 16327T Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [110]
Brown hair
F 2515 ± 43 BC

C4 16298C, 16327T Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [111]
Brown hair
M 2515 ± 43 BC R1a1a M89+, M9+, M45+, M173+, M198+ (Z93-) C4 16223, 16298C 16309, 16327T Li 2010 (and answer to comments)
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [115]
Brown black hair
M 2515 ± 43 BC R1a1a M89+, M9+, M45+, M173+, M198+ (Z93-) C4 16298C, 16327T Li 2010 (and answer to comments)
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [117] F 2515 ± 43 BC

M* 16223, 16304 Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [119]
Light brown hair
F 2515 ± 43 BC

K 1693, 16134T, 16224, 16311, 16390 Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [120]
Brown-black hair
M 2515 ± 43 BC R1a1a M89+, M9+, M45+, M173+, M198+ (Z93-) R* 16189, 16192, 16311 Li 2010 (and answer to comments)
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [121] M 2515 ± 43 BC R1a1a M89+, M9+, M45+, M173+, M198+ (Z93-) R* 16183, 16189, 16192 16311 Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [127] F 2515 ± 43 BC

C4 16223, 16298C, 16309, 16327T Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [128]
Brown-black hair
F 2515 ± 43 BC

H 16260T Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [131]
Nut-brown hair
F 2515 ± 43 BC

R* 16189, 16192, 16311 16390 Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [132]
Nut-brown hair
F 2515 ± 43 BC

C4 16298C, 16327T Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [135]
Black hair
F 2515 ± 43 BC

C4 16223, 16298C 16309, 16327T Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [136]
Nut-brown hair
M 2515 ± 43 BC R1a1a M89+, M9+, M45+, M173+, M198+ (Z93-) C4 16298C, 16327T Li 2010 (and answer to comments)
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [138]
Brown-black hair
F 2515 ± 43 BC

C4 16298C, 16327T Li 2010
Tocharian? China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [139]
Brown hair
M 2515 ± 43 BC R1a1a M89+, M9+, M45+, M173+, M198+ (Z93-) C4 16298C, 16327T Li 2010
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [T18-1] M 2515-1829 BC D 16051, 16223, 16362 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [T18-7] 2515-1829 BC G2a 16223, 16278, 16293, 16297, 16362 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [T22-6] 2515-1829 BC D 16223, 16234, 16316, 16362 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [T23-4, T24-7, T28-9] 2515-1829 BC C4 3 samples 16298, 16327 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [T24-12] M 2515-1829 BC ? 16129, 16223, reported as M5 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [T28-5] M 2515-1829 BC U5a 16192, 16256, 16270 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [T28-8] M 2515-1829 BC B5 16182C, 16183C, 16189, 16217, 16243, 16355 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [T29-12] M 2515-1829 BC ? 16129, 16223, 16304, reported as M Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [T35-1] M 2515-1829 BC ? 16184, 16223, 16298, 16319, reported as M Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [MW, Bm22] F + M 2515-1829 BC U7 2 samples 16318T Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [M12] F 2515-1829 BC H CRS Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [M39] M 2515-1829 BC C4 16129, 16223, 16298, 16327 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [M55] F 2515-1829 BC C4 16093, 16129, 16223, 16298, 16311, 16327 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [M62] M 2515-1829 BC K 16183C, 16189, 16224, 16256, 16311 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [Bm1, Bm2, Bm10, BM24, M70, M75, M87, M99, M130] 2515-1829 BC C4 9 samples 16223, 16298, 16309, 16327 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [Bm5] F 2515-1829 BC T 16126, 16292, 16294 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [Bm9] M 2515-1829 BC U2e 16051, 16129C, 16182C, 16183C, 16189, 16261, 16362 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [BM18] F 2515-1829 BC C5 16223, 16288, 16298, 16327 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [Bm20] F 2515-1829 BC D 16192, 16223, 16266, 16362 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [Bm25] M 2515-1829 BC R 16183C, 16189, 16261, 16311, 16390 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [M95] M 2515-1829 BC U5a 16192, 16256, 16270, 16291 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [M89, M93] F 2515-1829 BC C4 2 samples 16298, 16327 Li 2015
China Xiaohe, Xinjiang [M129] M 2515-1829 BC C4 16223, 16298, 16327 Li 2015

China Gavaerk, near Qiemo, Xinjiang [2C] F 800 BC–100 AD

C 16223, 16298, 16327 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [4B] M 800 BC–100 AD

C 16223, 16298, 16309, 16327 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [1E] M 800 BC–100 AD

D 5178A, 10400T, 16223, 16362 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [2A] M 800 BC–100 AD

D 5178A, 7028T, 10400T, 16362 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [14A] M 800 BC–100 AD

D 5178A, 7028T, 12705T, rCRS in HVI Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [16A] M + F 800 BC–100 AD

D 5178A, 10400T, 16173, 16223. In same grave as 16B Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [16B] M + F 800 BC–100 AD

D 5178A, 7028T, 16173, 12705T, 16223. In same grave as 16A Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [17A] M 800 BC–100 AD

D 5178A, 7028T, 12705T, 16114A, 16223, 16362 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [17B] F 800 BC–100 AD

D 5178A, 7028T, 12705T, 16223 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [25C, 25G] M 800 BC–100 AD

D 2 samples in same grave: 5178A, 7028T, 12705T, 16189, 16223, 16362 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [4A] F 800 BC–100 AD

D4 3010A, 5178A, 7028T, 12705T, 16223, 16274, 16362 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [2G, 11A, 22A] F + 2 M 800 BC–100 AD

F1 3 samples 7028T, 12406A; rCRS in HVI Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [23F] F 800 BC–100 AD

F1 7028T, 12406A, 16114A, 16187, 16192, 16256, 16266, 16304, 16357 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [5D] M 800 BC–100 AD

F1a 7028T, 10400T, 12705T, 16129, 16172, 16293, 16304 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [3G, 27] 2 M 800 BC–100 AD

H 16311 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [13] M 800 BC–100 AD

H 16305T, 16311 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [7D] ? 800 BC–100 AD

K 7028T, 9055A, 16224, 16311 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [2E] F 800 BC–100 AD

M* 7028T, 10400T, 12705T, 13263G, 16209, 16223, 16362 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [8D, 8F] 2 M 800 BC–100 AD

M* 2 samples in same grave: 7028T, 10400T, 12705T, 16093 Zhang 2010

China

Gavaerk, Xinjiang [3C]

M 800 BC–100 AD

M10 10400T, 16092, 16193, 16223, 16311, 16357 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [4E, 4G] 2 M 800 BC–100 AD

M13a 2 samples in same grave: 7028T, 10400T, 12705T, 16145, 16148, 16188, 16189, 16223 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [3F] M 800 BC–100 AD

N 7028T, 12406G, 12705T; rCRS in HVI Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [25G] F 800 BC–100 AD

T 5178A, 7028T, 12705T, 16126, 16294 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [3M] M 800 BC–100 AD

R* 7028T, 16071, 16357 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [3P] F 800 BC–100 AD

R* 7028T, 16223, 16356 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [9D] M 800 BC–100 AD

U 7028T, 12308G, 12705T; rCRS in HVI Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [25F] F 800 BC–100 AD

U2e 7028T, 12308G, 16129C, 16183C, 16362 Zhang 2010

China Gavaerk, Xinjiang [1A, 1B] M + F 800 BC–100 AD

U4 2 samples in same grave: 7028T, 16134, 16183C, 16189, 16356 Zhang 2010
Quin to Western Jin China Sampula, Luo County, Xinjiang Khotan [Y1]
217 BC-283 AD

B 16223, 16256, 16327 Xie 2007b
Quin - W. Jin China Sampula [Y8 and Y10]
217 BC-283 AD

C 16223, 16229, 16327 Xie 2007b
Quin - W. Jin China Sampula [Y7]
217 BC-283 AD

F1a 16126, 16162, 16172, 16304 Xie 2007b
Quin - W. Jin China Sampula [Y5]
217 BC-283 AD

G 16111, 16223, 16234, 16362 Xie 2007b
Quin - W. Jin China Sampula [L1]
217 BC-283 AD

M 16223, 16256, 16327 Xie 2007b
Quin - W. Jin China Sampula [Y3]
217 BC-283 AD

M 16113, 16223 Xie 2007b
Quin - W. Jin China Sampula [Y6]
217 BC-283 AD

N 16126, 16183C, 16189, 16311, 16365 Xie 2007b
Quin - W. Jin China Sampula [Y13]
217 BC-283 AD

N 16126, 16163, 16186, 16189, 16247C Xie 2007b
Quin - W. Jin China Sampula [Y2]
217 BC-283 AD

T2 16126, 16129, 16260, 16294, 16296, 16304 Xie 2007b
Quin - W. Jin China Sampula [L3]
217 BC-283 AD

U3 16343 Xie 2007b
Quin - W. Jin China Sampula [L4]
217 BC-283 AD

U3 16189, 16343 Xie 2007b
Quin - W. Jin China Sampula [Y11 and Y12]
217 BC-283 AD

U3 Two samples 16129, 16223, 16343 Xie 2007b
Western Han China Yuansha, Xinjiang
135 BC

A
Gao 2008
Western Han China Yuansha, Xinjiang
135 BC

D 2 samples Gao 2008
Western Han China Yuansha, Xinjiang
135 BC

G2a
Gao 2008
Western Han China Yuansha, Xinjiang
135 BC

H 3 samples Gao 2008
Western Han China Yuansha, Xinjiang
135 BC

I
Gao 2008
Western Han China Yuansha, Xinjiang
135 BC

M 3 samples Gao 2008
Western Han China Yuansha, Xinjiang
135 BC

N 3 samples Gao 2008
Western Han China Yuansha, Xinjiang
135 BC

T 2 samples Gao 2008
Sui Dynasty
Sogdian person
China Tomb of Yu Hong, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province [Yu Hong] M d. 593 AD

U5
Xie 2007a
Sui Dynasty China Tomb of Yu Hong
[Wife of Yu Hong]
F c. 600 AD

G
Xie 2007a
China Tashkurgan, Xinjiang 1300 AD U5a2a1 16114A, 13928C Ning 2016