Ancient DNA of the West Asian Copper and Bronze Ages

Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups extracted from historic and prehistoric human remains in West Asia, arranged chronologically. For haplogroup nomenclature and aDNA issues see Introduction to ancient DNA

Culture

Country

Site and/or Individual

Sex

Date

Genome

Y-DNA

mtDNA

Source



pigmentation from genes
pigmentation surviving

usually approximate number of SNPs Haplogroup Additional information Haplogroup Additional information
Ubaid Turkey Tell Kurdu, Amuq E [23:11 and 24:3] F + ? 5000-4500 BC H3a 2 samples of 16104T, 16187T, 16216G, 16239G, 16319C Özbal 2010
Iran Seh Gabi [I1670 / SG11] F 4839-4617 calBCE (5870±40 BP) U3a'c Lazaridis 2016
Iran Seh Gabi [I1662 / SG7] M 4831-4612 calBCE (5860±40 BP) J (xJ1a, J2a1, J2b)

[J2a2-PF5008 (xPF5058)]

PF4505+, CTS1250+, PF4513+, F1181+, PF4519+, PF4530+, L60+, F1744+, CTS2769+, F2116+, CTS5628+, CTS7229+, PF4567+, PF4572+, F2746+, F2769+, CTS8974+, CTS9877+, CTS10446+, F3119+, PF4591+, F3176+, PF4594+, FGC1599+, L778+, CTS11571+, CTS11750+. It was ancestral for haplogroups J1a (CTS5368), J2a1 (L26), and J2b (M314). K1a12a Lazaridis 2016 [additional analysis of haplogroup by Chris Rottensteiner ]
Iran Seh Gabi [I1661 / SG16] F 4696-4491 calBCE (5740±40 BP) H29 Lazaridis 2016
Israel Wadi el Makkukh [WM 27] M 4490-4335 BC

U3a 16343G, 16390A Salamon 2010

Israel Wadi el Makkukh [WM 28] M 4460-4365 BC

H? 263G, 309.1C Salamon 2010
Armenia Areni-1 (Bird's Eye Cave) [I1407/ARE 12] M 4350-3700 BCE L1a L863+, L878+, M61+ (L), L656+, L1304+ (L1), P329+, M27+, M76+ (L1a). No calls were made for SNPs downstream of L1a H Lazaridis 2016
Armenia Areni-1 (Bird's Eye Cave) [I1634/ARE 1/44] M 4330-3060 BCE L1a L863+, L878+, M61+ (L), L656+, M22+, L1304+ (L1), P329+, M27+, M76+ (L1a). No calls were made for SNPs downstream of L1a H2a1 Lazaridis 2016
Armenia Areni-1 (Bird's Eye Cave) [I1631/ARE 1/43C] F 4250-4050 BCE K1a8 Lazaridis 2016

Israel Wadi el Makkukh [WM 30] M 4240-4065 BC

H6 16311C, 16362C, 16482G Salamon 2010
Armenia Areni-1 (Bird's Eye Cave) [I1632/ARE 1/46] M 4230-4000 BCE L1a L878+, M185+, M11+, M61+, L855+ (L), L656+ (L1), P329+, M27+ (L1a) K1a8 Lazaridis 2016
Armenia Areni-1 (Bird's Eye Cave) [I1409/ARE 20] F 4229-3985 BCE U4a Lazaridis 2016
Iran Seh Gabi [I1674 / SG21] M 3972-3800 calBCE (5105±35 BP) G1a (xG1a1) F4113+, F1761+ (L1324-) I1c Lazaridis 2016
Iran Seh Gabi [I1665 / SG19] F 3956-3796 calBCE (5070±30 BP) U7a Lazaridis 2016
Turkey Barcın Höyük [I1584 / M10-111] F 3943-3708 calBCE (5016±31 BP) K1a17 Lazaridis 2016

Israel Wadi el Makkukh [CW] M 3765-3650 BC

H? 263G, 309.1C, 309.2C, 309.3C, 315.1C Salamon 2010
Kura-Araxes Armenia Talin [I1658 / TA3/R8] F 3347-3092 calBCE (4492±29 BP) U3a2 Lazaridis 2016
Sumerian Syria Mari [1]
2900-2700 BC

H14a 16256T, 16297C Fernández 2005
Sumerian Syria Mari [2]
2900-2700 BC

U4 16356C Fernández 2005
Sumerian Syria Mari [5] 2900-2700 BC U4a2b 16223T, 16356C Fernández 2005
Turkey Göndürle Höyük, Isparta [U1c / I2499] F 2836–2472 BCE 243348 K1a2 Lazaridis 2017
Amorite? Syria Terqa (Tell Ashara), Middle Euphrates Valley [TQ 28 F250] F 2650-2450 BC K 16224C, 16311C Tomczyk 2010
Syria Terqa [TQ 28F 112] M 2650-2450 BC M49 16223T, 16234T Witas 2013
Kura-Araxes Armenia Kalavan [I1633 / KA1/14] F 2619-2410 calBCE (3990±35 BP)

H1u Lazaridis 2016
Kura-Araxes Armenia Kalavan [I1635 / KA1/12] M 2619-2465 calBCE (4005±35 BP) R1b1-M415 (xM269) L388/PF6468, L389/PF6531 X2f Lazaridis 2016; revision; Additional SNPs from Sergey Malyshev
Turkey Göndürle Höyük, Isparta [A4-1 / I2495] M 2558–2295 BCE 637416 J1a H Lazaridis 2017
Sumerian Syria Mari [10] 2550 BC R 16223T Fernández 2005
Sumerian Syria Mari [11] 2550 BC J1a1 16126C, 16145A, 16231C, 16356C Fernández 2005
Sumerian Syria Mari [12] 2550 BC L2a1 16223T, 16256T, 16261T, 16278T, 16294T, 16309G Fernández 2005
Early Bronze Turkey Göndürle Höyük, Isparta [G3-95 / I2683] F 2500-1800 BCE 749308 T2b Lazaridis 2017
Early Bronze Jordan 'Ain Ghazal [I1706 / AG 98_2] F 2490-2300 BCE X2m Lazaridis 2016
Early Bronze Jordan 'Ain Ghazal [I1730 / AG 84_30] M 2489-2299 calBCE (3925±31 BP) J (xJ1,J2a, J2b2a)

[J2b1-PF7331]

CTS687+, CTS1250+, PF4513+, F1167+, F1181+, PF4519+, PF4521+, PF4524+, FGC3271+, PF4530+, F1826+, CTS4349+, CTS5280+, F2114+, F2116+, CTS5628+, CTS5678+, CTS7229+, F2502+, CTS7738+, F2769+, CTS8974+, F2817+, F2839+, CTS10446+, F3119+, F4299+, S22619+, PF4591+, F3176+, FGC1599+, YSC0000228+, CTS10858+, CTS11291+, L778+, CTS11571+, CTS11750+, PF4619+, CTS12047+ (M267-, L152-, L212-, L283-) R0a1a Lazaridis 2016; [additional analysis of haplogroup by Chris Rottensteiner ]

Turkey Titris Höyük [TH6070, TH6075, TH11704, TH60214, TH63203, TH63218, TH80076, TH80078, TH80080, TH80086] 4 F, 3 M + 3 child 2300-2100 BC

H? 10 samples of CRS Matney 2010

Turkey Titris Höyük [TH14110] F 2300-2100 BC

? 16278 Matney 2010

Turkey Titris Höyük [TH80088] M 2300-2100 BC

? 16139 Matney 2010
Syria Terqa [TQ 28F 256] M 2200-1900 BC M61 16223T, 16234T, 16270T Witas 2013
Early Bronze Jordan 'Ain Ghazal [I1705 / AG 98_1] M 2198-1966 calBCE (3690±35 BP) J1 (xJ1a) M267+ (M365.1-) H14a Lazaridis 2016
Middle Bronze Age Armenia Nerquin Getashen [RISE416] M 1943-1445 BC 29,941 E1b1b1b2a1a BT: M9178+ M8972+ M9008/V1530+ M9224+ M9378+ CT: M5778/PF1031+ M5797/PF1098+ M5821/PF1269+ DE: PF1428/F1498/M5430+ CTS1300/PF1423/M5400+ E: CTS6802/PF1715/M5486+ E-M75: V3614/CTS9480- CTS11447/Z1034- E-M98: CTS2564- CTS11049/Z1031- E-M132: CTS8383- Z875- CTS5775- E-M44: Z17449- E-Z958: CTS1319- CTS2223- E-M215: CTS5999/M5033+ E-V68: PF2115- E-V32: CTS10930- E-FGC37180: FGC37187- E-L540: Y7031- E-L17: Z16664- E-Y20431: FGC19295- E-M81: BY699- M5094/V1933- E-MZ22: Y2770/FGC4873- E-V42: Y19227- E-V1486: CTS1177- Y5967/FGC14842- E-M293: CTS2104/Z1261- E-Y5871: FGC18765/Y5936- E-PF1974: PF1980- E-M84: L788+ S10862+ E-Y14891: Y15451- E-Z21466: YP5382- E-L791: CTS11284- E-V95: Z1123/CTS6056- E-Y16159: FGC24079- E-CTS6649: CTS6649- E-PF2902: CTS12004- E-L515: V1473/M4262- E-M4694: CTS10886/M4701- E-Z1676: CTS5453/Z1668/Z1670- K1a17a 73G, 247A, 263G, 497T, 750G, 1438G, 1811G, 2706G, 3107T, 3480G, 9055A, 9698C, 10398G, 10550G, 11299C, 11467G, 11719A, 12308G, 12362T, 12372A, 12900G, 14167T, 14766T, 14798C, 15326G, 15466A, 15670C, 16093C, 16224C, 16260T, 16311C, 16477A, 16519C Allentoft 2015; additional information on Y-DNA haplogroup from Vladimir Semargl
Middle Bronze Age Armenia Nerquin Getashen [RISE413] M 1906-1698 BC 26,038 R1b R1b1 (M415/PF6251+ SK2063/FGC21034/V2197-, Y5586- FGC3890/Y11839-) T2c1f 73G, 146C, 263G, 709A, 750G, 1438G, 1824C, 2706G, 3107T, 4917G, 6261A, 6362G, 7028T, 8697A, 9165C, 10463C, 10822T, 11251G, 11719A, 11812G, 13368A, 14233G, 14766T, 14905A, 15326G, 15452A, 15607G, 15928A, 16126C, 16294T, 16422C, 16438A, 16519C Allentoft 2015; Y-DNA pers. comm. from author + additional info from Felix Emmanuel and Vladimir Tagankin
Canaanite Lebanon Sidon [burial 46] F 1750 BC 23,323,399 H1bc Haber 2017
Canaanite Lebanon Sidon [burial 75] F 1750 BC 128,355,897 R2 Haber 2017
Canaanite Lebanon Sidon [burial 54] M 1650 BC 69,084,826 J1a2b (P58) N1a3a Haber 2017
Canaanite Lebanon Sidon [burial 63] M 1600 BC 98,293,308 J2b (M12) HV1b1 Haber 2017
Canaanite Lebanon Sidon [burial 65] F 1600 BC 73,701,096 K1a2 Haber 2017
Armenia Katnaghbiur Kurgan 1 [I1656/ Kat 16] F 1501-1402 calBCE (3168±27 BP) T1a1'3 Lazaridis 2016
Middle Bronze Age Armenia Nerquin Getashen [RISE423] M 1402-1211 BC 391,520 E1b E1b1b1b2a1a (L795) T2a 73G, 195C, 263G, 709A, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 3107T, 4917G, 6006T, 7028T, 8697A, 10463C, 11251G, 11719A, 11812G, 13368A, 13965C, 14233G, 14766T, 14905A, 15326G, 15452A, 15607G, 15928A, 16126C, 16294T, 16296T, 16519C Allentoft 2015; Y-DNA personal communication from author + add info from Steve Fix
Late Bronze Age Armenia Norabak [RISE408] M 1209-1009 BC 119,508

J2b J2b2a (Z588+ Z589+ Z590+ Z622+ Y1276+, Z590 + Z2515+, Z627-) I5c 73G, 199C, 250C, 263G, 750G, 1438G, 1719A, 3107T, 8251A, 10034C, 10238C, 10398G, 11719A, 12501A, 12705T, 13780G, 14233G, 14766T, 15043A, 15326G, 15924G, 16114T, 16129A, 16169T, 16223T, 16391A, 16519C Allentoft 2015; Y-DNA personal communication from author, additional info from Vince Tilroe
Late Bronze Age Armenia Noratus [RISE412] F 1193-945 BC 120,701



U4c1a 73G, 195C, 263G, 499A, 750G, 1438G, 1811G, 2706G, 3107T, 4811G, 6146G, 7028T, 9070G, 10907C, 11009C, 11332T, 11467G, 11719A, 12308G, 12372A, 14620T, 14766T, 14866T, 15326G, 15693C, 16179T, 16356C, 16519C Allentoft 2015
Late Bronze Age Armenia Kapan [RISE396] F 1192-937 calBCE (2879±31 BP) 66,403

Allentoft 2015; Lazaridis 2016
Late Bronze Age Armenia Norabak [RISE407] F 1115-895 BC 188,600

H8a 146C, 195C, 214G, 263G, 444G, 709A, 750G, 1438G, 13101C, 15326G, 15401G, 15928A, 16111T, 16167T, 16288C, 16362C Allentoft 2015
Late Bronze Age Armenia Kapan [RISE397] M 1048-855 BC 247,537 R1b R1b1a2a2 (Y4371/Z8128) + downstream +Z2106 > PH4902+ > Y:18249219(A/C)+ CTS9219- on R1b1a2 Project tree T1a2 152C, 195C, 263G, 709A, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 3107T, 4313C, 4917G, 6045T, 7853A, 8059T, 8697A, 8750C, 9380A, 10463C, 11251G, 11719A, 12633A, 13368A, 14766T, 14905A, 15326G, 15452A, 15607G, 15928A, 16126C, 16163G, 16186T, 16189C, 16278T, 16294T, 16519C Allentoft 2015; Y-DNA personal communication from author + additional info from Sergey Malyshev